Diamond as a scaffold for bone growth
- 377 Downloads
Diamond is an attractive material for biomedical implants. In this work, we investigate its capacity as a bone scaffold. It is well established that the bioactivity of a material can be evaluated by examining its capacity to form apatite-like calcium phosphate phases on its surface when exposed to simulated body fluid. Accordingly, polycrystalline diamond (PCD) and ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) deposited by microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition were exposed to simulated body fluid and assessed for apatite growth when compared to the bulk silicon. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that both UNCD and PCD are capable of acting as a bone scaffold. The composition of deposited apatite suggests that UNCD and PCD are suitable for in vivo implantation with UNCD possible favoured in applications where rapid osseointegration is essential.
A.D.G. acknowledges the Australian Research Council for financial support (Project No. DP0880466). This work was supported by the University of Melbourne Interdisciplinary Seed Funding scheme. K.F. is financially supported by the Australian Research Council (ARC) through its Special Research Initiative (SRI) in Bionic Vision Science and Technology grant to Bionic Vision Australia (BVA) and by the University of Melbourne Research Collaboration Grant scheme. K.F acknowledges the support of Surgical Design and Manufacture Ltd and Prof. Steven Prawer. The authors wish to acknowledge the facilities, and the scientific and technical assistance, of the Australian Microscopy & Microanalysis Research Facility at the RMIT Microscopy & Microanalysis Facility, at RMIT University and Dr Jiri Cervenka for FIB-SEM assistance.
- 4.Knabe C, Berger G, Gildenhaar R, Klar F, Zreiqat H. The modulation of osteogenesis in vitro by calcium titanium phosphate coatings Biomaterials. 2004;25(20):4911–9.Google Scholar
- 14.Nath S, Basu B. Materials for orthopedic applications. In: Basu B, Katti D, Kumar A, editors. Advanced Biomaterials: Fundamentals, processing and applications. Hoboken: Wiley; 2009.Google Scholar
- 15.Klein C, Groot Kd. Implant systems based on bioactive ceramics. In: Heimke G, editor. Osseo-integrated implants: Implants in oral and ENT surgery. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1990. p. 193–208.Google Scholar
- 17.Cook S, Thomas K, Brinker M. Bioactive ceramic coatings for orthopaedic and dental implant applications. Blood compatible materials and devices: Perspectives towards the 21st century. Lancaster: Technomic publishing company; 1991.Google Scholar
- 18.Coathup MJ, Blunn GW, Flynn N, Williams C, Thomas NP. A comparison of bone remodelling around hydroxyapatite-coated, porous-coated and grit-blasted hip replacements retrieved at post-mortem. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-British Volume. 2001;83B(1):118–23. doi:10.1302/0301-620x.83b1.10062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Bohner M, Lemaitre J. Can bioactivity be tested in vitro with SBF solution Biomaterials. 2009;30:2175–9.Google Scholar
- 27.Guglielmotti MB, Renou S, Cabrini RL. A histomorphometric study of tissue interface by laminar implant test in rats. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 1999;14(4):565–70.Google Scholar
- 30.Aspenberg P, Anttila A, Konttinen YT, Lappalainen R, Goodman SB, Nordsletten L, et al. Benign response to particles of diamond and SiC: bone chamber studies of new joint replacement coating materials in rabbits. Biomaterials. 1996;17(8):807–12. doi:10.1016/0142-9612(96)81418-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 38.Faig-Martia J, Gil-Murb FJ. Hydroxyapatite coatings in prosthetic joints. Rev Esp Cir Ortop Traumatol. 2008;52:113–20.Google Scholar
- 42.Ben-Nissan B, Chai CS, Gross KA. Effect of solution ageing on sol-gel hydroxyapatite coatings. Bioceramics, Vol 10. 1997.Google Scholar
- 45.Kokubo T, Kim H-M, Kawashita M. Novel bioactive materials with different mechanical properties Biomaterials. 2003;24:2161–75.Google Scholar
- 50.LeGeros RZ. Fundamentals of hydroxyapatite and related calcium phosphates. In: Basu B, Katti D, Kumar A, editors. Advanced Biomaterials: Fundamentals, processing and applications. Hoboken: Wiley; 2009.Google Scholar