Influence of particle size on hardening and handling of a premixed calcium phosphate cement

  • Jonas ÅbergEmail author
  • Johanna Engstrand
  • Håkan Engqvist


Premixed calcium phosphate cements (pCPC) have been developed to circumvent problems related to mixing and transfer of cements in the operating room. In addition, by using pCPC the short working times generally associated with conventional water-mixed cements are avoided. In this work, the influence of particle size on handling and hardening characteristics of a premixed monetite cement has been assessed. The cements were evaluated with respect to their injectability, setting time and compressive strength. It was found that cements with smaller particle sizes were more difficult to inject and had higher compressive strength. Regarding setting time, no clear trend could be discerned. The addition of granules made the cements easier to inject, but setting time was prolonged and lower strengths were obtained. The main findings of this work demonstrate that particle size can be used to control handling and physical properties of premixed cements and that previous knowledge from water-based CPC, regarding effects of particle size, is not directly applicable to premixed CPC.


Compressive Strength Setting Time Cement Paste Calcium Phosphate Cement Hardened Layer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The Swedish Research Council and the FP7 NMP project Biodesign are gratefully acknowledged for financial support.


  1. 1.
    Legeros R, Chohayeb A, Shulman A. Apatitic calcium phosphates: possible dental restorative materials. J Dent Res. 1982;61:343.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brown W, Chow LC. A new calcium phosphate setting cement. J Dent Res. 1983;62:672.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Larsson S. Calcium phosphates: what is the evidence? J Orthop Trauma. 2010;24:S41–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ryf C, Goldhahn S, Radziejowski M, Blauth M, Hanson B. A new injectable brushite cement: first results in distal radius and proximal tibia fractures. Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2009;35(4):389–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lee DW, Kim JY, Lew DH. Use of rapidly hardening hydroxyapatite cement for facial contouring surgery. J Craniofac Surg. 2010;21(4):1084–8. doi: 10.1097/Scs.0b013e3181e1b64b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wolff KD, Swaid S, Nolte D, Bockmann RA, Holzle F, Muller-Mai C. Degradable injectable bone cement in maxillofacial surgery: indications and clinical experience in 27 patients. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2004;32(2):71–9. doi: 10.1016/S1010-5182(03)00134-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dorozhkin SV. Calcium orthophosphate cements for biomedical application. J Mater Sci. 2008;43(9):3028–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bohner M, van Landuyt P, Merkle HP, Lemaitre J. Composition effects on the pH of a hydraulic calcium phosphate cement. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 1997;8(11):675–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Åberg J, Brisby H, Henriksson HB, Lindahl A, Thomsen P, Engqvist H. Premixed acidic calcium phosphate cement: characterization of strength and microstructure. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2010;93B(2):436–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu CS, Shen W, Gu YF, Hu LM. Mechanism of the hardening process for a hydroxyapatite cement. J Biomed Mater Res. 1997;35(1):75–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sugawara A, Chow LC, Takagi S, Chohayeb H. In vitro evaluation of the sealing ability of a calcium-phosphate cement when used as a root-canal sealer-filler. J Endod. 1990;16(4):162–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Takagi S, Chow LC, Hirayama S, Sugawara A. Premixed calcium-phosphate cement pastes. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2003;67B(2):689–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Carey LE, Xu HHK, Simon CG, Takagi S, Chow LC. Premixed rapid-setting calcium phosphate composites for bone repair. Biomaterials. 2005;26(24):5002–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Han B, Ma PW, Zhang LL, Yin YJ, Yao KD, Zhang FJ, et al. beta-TCP/MCPM-based premixed calcium phosphate cements. Acta Biomater. 2009;5(8):3165–77. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2009.04.024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bohner M, Baroud G. Injectability of calcium phosphate pastes. Biomaterials. 2005;26(13):1553–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Andrianjatovo H, Jose F, LeMaitre J. Effect of beta-TCP granularity on setting time and strength of calcium phosphate hydraulic cements. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 1996;7(1):34–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ohura K, Bohner M, Hardouin P, Lemaitre J, Pasquier G, Flautre B. Resorption of, and bone formation from, new beta-tricalcium phosphate-monocalcium phosphate cements: an in vivo study. J Biomed Mater Res. 1996;30(2):193–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Underwood E. Quantitative stereology. Reading: Addison-Wesly; 1970.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ishikawa K. Calcium phosphate cement. In: Kokubo T, editor. Bioceramics and their clinical applications. Cambridge: Woodhead publishing limited; 2008.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ginebra MP, del Valle S, Mino N, Munoz F, Gonzalez A, Planell JA. In vivo evaluation of an injectable macroporous calcium phosphate cement. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2007;18(2):353–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gbureck U, Dembski S, Thull R, Barralet JE. Factors influencing calcium phosphate cement shelf-life. Biomaterials. 2005;26(17):3691–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Engstrand J, Aberg J, Engqvist H. Influence of water content on hardening and handling of a premixed calcium phosphate cement. Mater Sci Eng C. 2013;33(1):527–31. doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2012.09.026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rajzer I, Castano O, Engel E, Planell JA. Injectable and fast resorbable calcium phosphate cement for body-setting bone grafts. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2010;21(7):2049–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonas Åberg
    • 1
    Email author
  • Johanna Engstrand
    • 1
  • Håkan Engqvist
    • 1
  1. 1.Applied Materials Science, Department of Engineering SciencesUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden

Personalised recommendations