The healing of critical-size calvarial bone defects in rat with rhPDGF-BB, BMSCs, and β-TCP scaffolds
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Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) plays important roles in regenerating damaged tissue. In this study we investigated the effects of a tissue-engineered bone combined with recombinant human PDGF-BB (rhPDGF-BB), bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) and β–tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) to repair critical-size calvarial bone defects in rat. Proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs treated with different concentration rhPDGF-BB (0, 10, and 50 ng/ml) was evaluated by MTT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin red staining and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of osteogenic gene. BMSCs were then combined with rhPDGF-BB-loaded β-TCP and transplanted into 5 mm calvarial bone defects. The new bone formation and mineralization was evaluated by micro-computerized tomography (Micro-CT) and histological analysis at week 8 after operation. It was observed that the proliferation of BMSCs treated with rhPDGF-BB was enhanced with a time- and dose- dependent manner. There were increased ALP activity, mineralized deposition and elevated mRNA levels of osteogenic gene for BMSCs treated with rhPDGF-BB, particularly in the 50 ng/ml group. Histological analysis showed new bone formation and mineralization in the rhPDGF-BB/BMSCs/β-TCP group was significantly higher than BMSCs/β-TCP, rhPDGF-BB/β-TCP, and β-TCP alone group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, rhPDGF-BB/BMSCs/β-TCP is a promising tissue-engineered bone for craniofacial bone regeneration.