Effect of heat treatments on apatite-forming ability of NaOH- and HCl-treated titanium metal

  • Deepak K. Pattanayak
  • Seiji Yamaguchi
  • Tomiharu Matsushita
  • Tadashi Kokubo


Titanium (Ti) metal was soaked in HCl solution after NaOH treatment and then subjected to heat treatments at different temperatures. Their apatite-forming abilities in a simulated body fluid (SBF) were discussed in terms of their surface structures and properties. The nanometer scale roughness formed on Ti metal after NaOH treatment remained after the HCl treatment and a subsequent heat treatment below 700°C. Hydrogen titanate was formed on Ti metal from an HCl treatment after NaOH treatment, and this was converted into titanium oxide of anatase and rutile phases by a subsequent heat treatment above 500°C. The scratch resistance of the surface layer increased with the formation of the titanium oxide after a heat treatment up to 700°C, and then decreased with increasing temperature. The Ti metal with a titanium oxide layer formed on its surface showed a high apatite-forming ability in SBF when the heat treatment temperature was in the range 500–700°C. The high apatite-forming ability was attributed to the positive surface charge in an SBF. These positive surface charges were ascribed to the presence of chloride ions, which were adsorbed on the surfaces and dissociated in the SBF to give an acid environment.


Zeta Potential Simulated Body Fluid Heat Treatment Temperature Subsequent Heat Treatment Titanium Oxide Layer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Textor M, Sittig C, Frauchiger V, Tosatti S, Brunette DM. Properties and biological significance of natural oxide films on titanium and its alloys. In: Brunette DM, Tengvall P, Textor M, Thomsen P, editors. Titanium in medicine. Germany: Springer; 2001. p. 171–230.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hacking SA, Tanzer M, Harvey EJ, Krygier JJ, Bobyn JD. Relative contributions of chemistry and topography to the osseointegration of hydroxyapatite coatings. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2002;405:24–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kokubo T, Miyaji F, Kim HM, Nakamura T. Spontaneous formation of bonelike apatite layer on chemically treated titanium metals. J Am Ceram Soc. 1996;79:1127–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kim HM, Miyaji F, Kokubo T, Nakamura T. Preparation of bioactive Ti and its alloy via simple chemical surface treatment. J Biomed Mater Res. 1996;32:409–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yan WQ, Nakamura T, Kobayashi M, Kim HM, Miyaji F, Kokubo T. Bonding of chemically treated titanium implants to bone. J Biomed Mater Res. 1997;37:267–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nishiguchi S, Fujibayashi S, Kim HM, Kokubo T, Nakamura T. Biology of alkali- and heat-treated titanium implants. J Biomed Mater Res. 2003;67A:26–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kawanabe K, Ise K, Goto K, Akiyama H, Nakamura T, Kaneuji A, Sugimori T, Matsumoto T. A new cementless total hip arthoplasty with bioactive titanium porous-coating by alkaline and heat treatment: average 4.8-year results. J Biomed Mater Res. 2009;90B:476–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pattanayak DK, Kawai T, Matsushita T, Takadama H, Kokubo T, Nakamura T. Effect of HCl concentrations on apatite-forming ability of NaOH-HCl- and heat-treated titanium metal. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2009;20:2401–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Takemoto M, Fujibayashi S, Neo M, Suzuki J, Kokubo T, Nakamura T. Mechanical properties and osteoconductivity of porous bioactive titanium. Biomaterials. 2005;26:6014–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Takemoto M, Fujibayashi S, Neo M, Suzuki J, Matsushita T, Kokubo T, Nakamura T. Osteoinductive porous titanium implants: effect of sodium removal by dilute HCl treatment. Biomaterials. 2006;27:2682–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Takemoto M, Fujibayashi S, Neo M, So K, Akiyama N, Matsushita T, Kokubo T, Nakamura T. A porous bioactive titanium implant for spinal interbody fusion: an experimental study using a canine model. J Neurosurg Spine. 2007;7:435–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kokubo T, Takadama H. How useful is SBF in predicting in vivo bone bioactivity? Biomaterials. 2006;27:2907–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sun X, Li Y. Synthesis and characterization of ion-exchangeable titanate nanotubes. Chem Eur J. 2003;9:2229–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tsai CC, Teng H. Structural features of nanotubes synthesized from NaOH treatment on TiO2 with different post-treatments. Chem Mater. 2006;18:367–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kokubo T, Pattanayak DK, Yamaguchi S, Takadama H, Matsushita T, Kawai T, Takemoto M, Fujibayashi S, Nakamura T. Positively charged bioactive titanium metal prepared by simple chemical and heat treatments. J R Soc Interface. 2010;7:S503–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bruijn JDD, Shankar K, Yuan H, Habibovic P. Osteoinduction and its evaluation. In: Kokubo T, editor. Bioceramics and their clinical applications. Cambridge: Woodhead publishing Ltd; 2008. p. 199–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deepak K. Pattanayak
    • 1
  • Seiji Yamaguchi
    • 1
  • Tomiharu Matsushita
    • 1
  • Tadashi Kokubo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life and Health SciencesChubu UniversityKasugaiJapan

Personalised recommendations