Joint immobilization inhibits spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration induced by a novel double-network gel implantation

  • Kazunobu Arakaki
  • Nobuto Kitamura
  • Takayuki Kurokawa
  • Shin Onodera
  • Fuminori Kanaya
  • Jian-Ping Gong
  • Kazunori YasudaEmail author


We have recently discovered that spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration can be induced in an osteochondral defect in the rabbit, when we implant a novel double-network (DN) gel plug at the bottom of the defect. To clarify whether joint immobilization inhibits the spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration, we conducted this study with 20 rabbits. At 4 or 12 weeks after surgery, the defect in the mobile knees was filled with a sufficient volume of the hyaline cartilage tissue rich in proteoglycan and type-2 collagen, while no cartilage tissues were observed in the defect in the immobilized knees. Type-2 collagen, Aggrecan, and SOX9 mRNAs were expressed only in the mobile knees at each period. This study demonstrated that joint immobilization significantly inhibits the spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration induced by the DN gel implantation. This fact suggested that the mechanical environment is one of the significant factors to induce this phenomenon.


Cartilage Tissue Chondrogenic Differentiation Hyaline Cartilage Osteochondral Defect Cartilage Regeneration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was financially supported by grants from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, and from Takeda Science Foundation, Japan.

Conflict of interest

The authors declared that they had no conflicts of interests in their authorship and publication of the contribution.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazunobu Arakaki
    • 1
    • 3
  • Nobuto Kitamura
    • 1
  • Takayuki Kurokawa
    • 2
  • Shin Onodera
    • 1
  • Fuminori Kanaya
    • 3
  • Jian-Ping Gong
    • 2
  • Kazunori Yasuda
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Sports Medicine and Joint Reconstruction SurgeryHokkaido University School of MedicineSapporoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of ScienceHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of the RyukyusOkinawaJapan

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