Low temperature fabrication of magnesium phosphate cement scaffolds by 3D powder printing
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Synthetic bone replacement materials are of great interest because they offer certain advantages compared with organic bone grafts. Biodegradability and preoperative manufacturing of patient specific implants are further desirable features in various clinical situations. Both can be realised by 3D powder printing. In this study, we introduce powder-printed magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) structures, accompanied by a neutral setting reaction by printing farringtonite (Mg3(PO4)2) powder with ammonium phosphate solution as binder. Suitable powders were obtained after sintering at 1100°C for 5 h following 20–40 min dry grinding in a ball mill. Depending on the post-treatment of the samples, compressive strengths were found to be in the range 2–7 MPa. Cytocompatibility was demonstrated in vitro using the human osteoblastic cell line MG63.