Development of porous HAp and β-TCP scaffolds by starch consolidation with foaming method and drug-chitosan bilayered scaffold based drug delivery system
- 981 Downloads
The inability to maintain high concentrations of antibiotic at the site of infection for an extended period of time along with dead space management is still the driving challenge in treatment of osteomyelitis. Porous bioactive ceramics such as hydroxyapatite (HAp) and beta-tri calcium phosphate (β-TCP) were some of the alternatives to be used as local drug delivery system. However, high porosity and high interconnectivity of pores in the scaffolds play a pivotal role in the drug release and bone resorption. Ceftriaxone is a cephalosporin that has lost its clinical popularity. But has recently been reported to exhibit better bactericidal activity in vitro and reduced probability of resistance development, in combination with sulbactam, a β-lactamase inhibitor. In this article, a novel approach of forming HAp and pure β-TCP based porous scaffolds by applying together starch consolidation with foaming method was used. For the purpose, pure HAp and β-TCP were prepared in the laboratory and after thorough characterization (including XRD, FTIR, particle size distribution, etc.) the powders were used for scaffold fabrication. The ability of these scaffolds to release drugs suitably for osteomyelitis was studied in vitro. The results of the study indicated that HAp exhibited better drug release profile than β-TCP when drug was used alone indicating the high influence of the carrier material. However, this restriction got relaxed when a bilayered scaffold was formed using chitosan along with the drug. SEM studies along with EDAX on the drug-chitosan bilayered scaffold showed closest apposition of this combination to the calcium phosphate surface.
The authors wish to express their sincere thanks to Department of Science and Technology, India and Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal for funding this work and the Director, CGCRI, India and CICECO, University of Aveiro, Portugal for their support. All the personnel related to the characterization of the materials are sincerely acknowledged.
- 4.Efstathopoulos N, Giamarellos-Bourboulis E, Kanellakopoulou K, Lazarettos I, Giannoudis P, Frangia K, et al. Treatment of experimental osteomyelitis by methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus with bone cement system releasing grepafloxacin. Injury. 2008;39(12):1384–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 13.Klawitter JJ, Hulbert SF. Application of porous ceramics for the attachment of load bearing internal orthopaedic application. J Biomed Mater Res Symposium No 2. 1971;Part 1:161-229.Google Scholar
- 14.de Groot K, Klein CPAT, Wolke JGC, de Blieck-Hogervorst JMA. Chemistry of calcium phosphate bioceramics. In: Yamamuro T, Hench LL, Wilson J, editors. Handbook of bioactive ceramics. Vol. 2: Calcium phosphate and hydroxylapatite ceramics. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1990. p. 3–16.Google Scholar
- 19.Rutenberg M. Starch and its modifications. Handbook of water-soluble gums and resins. New York: McGraw Hill; 1979.Google Scholar
- 25.Kundu B, Sarkar R, Banerjee G, Panda C, Basu D, inventors; Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute IFGL Bioceramics Limited, assignee. An improved process for the synthesis of pure beta-tri-calcium phosphate (β-tcp) useful for biomedical application (applied). India 2009.Google Scholar
- 28.Lemos AF, Santos JD, Ferreira JMF. New method for the incorporation of soluble bioactive glasses to reinforce porous ha structures. Key Engg Mater. 2003;254–256:1033–6.Google Scholar
- 29.ASTM Standard C773-88. Standard test method for compressive (crushing) strength of fired whiteware materials. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International; 2006. doi: 10.1520/C0773-88R06.
- 30.Klug HP, Alexander LE. X-ray diffraction procedures: For polycrystalline and amorphous materials. 2 ed. ed. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH; 1974.Google Scholar
- 31.Cullity BD, Stock SR. Elements of x-ray diffraction. 2 ed. ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall; 2001.Google Scholar
- 38.Kutty TRN. Assignments of some bands in the infrared spectrum of b-tricalcium phosphate. Ind J Chem. 1970;8(7):655–7.Google Scholar
- 40.Rahaman MN. Ceramic processing and sintering. 2 ed. ed. New York: Marcel Dekker; 2003.Google Scholar
- 42.Minnear WP. Processing of foamed ceramics. Ceramic transactions, forming science and technology for ceramics. Westemille, Ohio: The American Ceramic Society; 1992.Google Scholar
- 43.Gibson LJ, Ashby MF. Cellular solids: Structure and properties. 2 ed. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1997.Google Scholar
- 45.Eggli PS, Muller W, Schenk RK. Porous hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate cylinders with two different pore size ranges implanted in the cancellous bone of rabbits. A comparative histomorphometric and histologic study of bony ingrowth and implant substitution. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1988;232:127–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 57.LeGeros RZ, Bautista C, LeGeros JP, Vijaraghavan TV, Retino M. Comparative properties of bioactive bone graft materials. Bioceramics. London: Pergamon Press; 1995.Google Scholar