In vitro evaluation of surface topographic changes and nickel release of lingual orthodontic archwires
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The objective of the article is to study surface topographic changes and nickel release in lingual orthodontic archwires in vitro. Stainless steel (SS), nickel–titanium (NiTi) and copper–nickel–titanium (CuNiTi) lingual orthodontic archwires were studied using atomic absorption spectrometry for nickel release after immersion in a saline solution. Surface roughness changes were measured using atomic force microscopy. Differences between groups were analyzed using independent sample t-tests. Statistically significant changes in roughness were seen in all archwires except NiTi. Surface changes were most severe in the CuNiTi alloy. SS archwires released the highest amount of nickel. In conclusion, only roughness changes in CuNiTi archwires seemed to be clinically significant. The amount of nickel released for all archwires tested is below the levels known to cause cell damage.
KeywordsAtomic Force Microscopy Hydrogen Embrittlement Orthodontic Appliance NiTi Wire Cobalt Nickel
The present study was funded through a research grant of the Universitat de Barcelona (Facultat d’Odontologia). We would like to acknowledge the help provided in the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya by Dr. José María Manero and Fernando Villar in obtaining the images for the present study. The photo in Fig. 1 was kindly donated by Dr. A. Hayes (St Louis, MO, USA). We are especially grateful to Dr. Gregory Stylianos Antonarakis from the Division of Orthodontics of the Université de Genève for proof reading this manuscript.
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