Rapid biomineralization of chitosan microparticles to apply in bone regeneration
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The aim of this study was to prepare bone like mineral (BLM) layers rapidly on the exterior surfaces of chitosan (CS) microparticles (MPs). The CS MPs were fabricated using a scale-up double emulsification method. The CS MPs were in the spherical shape and the size of 30–60 μm. The MPs were then placed in 5× concentrated simulated body fluid (5 × SBF) and allowed to undergo biomineralization to form a BLM layers on the surface of CS MPs at 37°C over a 24 h period. The BML layers on the exterior surface of CS MPs were characterized using wide angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared microscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was dissolved at a concentration of 1 μg/ml in 5 × SBF to incorporate into the BLM layer. The CS MPs (100 mg) were incubated in a sample of 4 ml of 5 × SBF containing IGF-1 at a concentration of 1 μg/ml for 24 h. The IGF-1 release from BML layers on CS MPs were studied by placing MPs in 4 ml of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and incubating MPs at 37°C for 30 days. Samples (100 μl) were taken over the course of the 30 days and analyzed using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The release IGF-1 from BML layers was in a burst manner followed by a sustained release during the 30-day period. This study suggests that the CS MPs have the potential to be used to help deliver therapeutic drugs to localized areas and hence increase and accelerate bone growth.