Precipitation of calcium phosphate in the presence of albumin on titanium implants with four different possibly bioactive surface preparations. An in vitro study
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The aim of the present study was to compare the nucleating behaviour on four types of bioactive surfaces by using the simulated body fluid (SBF) model with the presence albumin. Titanium discs were blasted (B) and then prepared by alkali and heat treatment (AH), anodic oxidation (AO), fluoridation (F), or hydroxyapatite coating (HA). The discs were immersed in SBF with 4.5 mg/ml albumin for 3 days, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks and analysed with scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Topographic surface characterisation was performed with a contact stylus profilometer. The results demonstrated that the bioactive surfaces initiated an enhanced calcium phosphate (CaP) formation and a more rapid increase of protein content was present on the bioactive surfaces compared to the blasted control surface. The observation was present on all bioactive surfaces. The fact that there was a difference between the bioactive surfaces and the blasted control surface with respect to precipitation of CaP and protein content on the surfaces support the fact that there may be biochemical advantages in vivo by using a bioactive surface.
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