Ion release by endodontic grade glass-ionomer cement

  • Beata Czarnecka
  • Honorata Limanowska-Shaw
  • Richard Hatton
  • John W. Nicholson


Cylindrical specimens (6 mm high × 4 mm diameter) of the endodontic grade glass-ionomer (Ketac Endo) were exposed to various media for 1 week, after which changes in their mass, pH of storage medium, and ion release were determined. In water, this cement was shown to release reasonable amounts of sodium, aluminium and silicon, together with smaller amounts of calcium and phosphorus, as well as taking up 2.41% by mass of water. A comparison with the restorative grade materials (Ketac Molar, ex 3M ESPE and Fuji IX, ex GC) showed both ion release and water uptake to be greater. All three cements shifted pH from 7 to around 6 with no significant differences between them.

Other storage media were found to alter the pattern of ion release. Lactic acid caused an increase, whereas both saturated calcium hydroxide and 0.6% sodium hypochlorite, caused decreases. This suppression of ion-release may be significant clinically. Aluminium is the most potentially hazardous of the ions involved but amounts released were low compared with levels previously reported to show biological damage.


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© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Beata Czarnecka
    • 1
  • Honorata Limanowska-Shaw
    • 1
  • Richard Hatton
    • 2
  • John W. Nicholson
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biomaterials and Experimental DentistryUniversity of Medical Sciences in PoznanPoland
  2. 2.Medway School of ScienceUniversity of GreenwichChathamUnited Kingdom

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