In situ study on the curing process of calcium phosphate bone cement

Article

Abstract

The aim of this study was to follow the entire curing process of modified α-TCP cement, and to explore how the liquid phase affects the curing reaction. Two calcium phosphate bone cements (CPCs) with a variety of aqueous solution were studied for comparison. In situ X-ray diffraction analysis and pH testing were employed to follow the chemical reaction, while quantitative ultrasonic measurement (QUS) was carried out to monitor the physical change. Results showed that CPC powders were completely consumed after 72 h. Two steps were presented in apatite formation. The first step was the precipitation of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA), and in the second step, conversion of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) was the dominant reaction. Finally, CPCs were fully converted to apatite except the cement with NaH2PO4 as liquid phase, because acidic environment inhibited the conversion of apatite. The pH increased linearly after mixing, when supersaturation was reached, it decreased to pH ≈ 6.0 gradually. Ultrasound measurement indicated that the variation of speed of sound (SOS) was related to both apatite formation and microstructural evolution. Ultrasonic attenuation coefficient (UAC) was able to quantitatively describe the curing process from viscous paste to elastic solid as a function of curing time. Moreover, the curing reaction conformed to classical dissolution-precipitation mechanism.

References

  1. 1.
    W. E. BROWN and L. C. CHOW, US Pat. 4518430 (1985)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. BOHNERA and G. BAROUD, Biomaterials 26 (2005) 1553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    B. R. CONSTANTZ, I. C. ISON, F. M. FULMER, R. D. POSER, S. T. SMITH, T. SUSANNE, M. VANWAGONER, R. JOHN, S. A. GOLDSTEIN, J. B. JUPITER and D. I. ROSENTHAL, Science 267 (1995) 1796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. BOHNER, Eur Spine J. 10 (2001) S114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. BOHNER, Injury, Int. J. Care Injured 31 (2000) S-D37Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    E. FERNANDEZ, F. J. GIL, M. P. GINEBRA, F. C. M. DRIESSENS, J. A. PLANELL and S. M. BEST, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 10 (1999) 223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    E. FERNANDEZ, F. J. GIL, S. M. BEST, M. P. GINEBRA, F. C. M. DRIESSENS and J. A. PLANELL, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 41 (1998) 560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    E. FERNANDEZ, M. P. GINEBRA, M. G. BOLTONG, F. C. M. DRIESSENS, J. GINEBRA, E. A. P. DE MAEYER, R. M. H. VERBEECK and J. A. PLANELL, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 32 (1996) 367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. SARDA, E. FERNANDEZ, J. LLORENS, S. MARTINEZ, M. NILSSON and J. A. PLANELL, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 12 (2001) 905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. HAN, J. MEDIGE, K. FARAN, Z. FENG and I. ZIV, Med. Eng. Phys. 19 (1997) 742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    D. HANS, C. WU, C. F. NJEH, S. ZHAO, P. AUGAT, D. NEWITT, T. LINK, Y. LU, S. MAJUMDAR and H. K. GENANT, Calcif. Tissue. Int. 64 (1999) 18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. R. RAPOPORT, J. S. POPOVICS, S. V. KOLLURU and S. P. SHAH, ACI. Mater. J. 97 (2000) 675Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. M. VIANO, J. A. AUWARTER, J. Y. RHO and B. K. HOFFMEISTER, J. Biomed. Mater. Res 56 (2001) 593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. NILSSON, J. CARLSON, E. FERNANDEZ and J. A. PLANELL, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 13 (2002) 1135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. CARLSON, M. NILSSON, E. FERNANDEZ and J. A. PlANELL, Biomaterials 24 (2003) 71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. WIENOLD, R. E. JENTOFT and T. RESSLER, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 8 (2001) 677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    O. KIRILENKO, F. GIRGSDIES, R. E. JENTOFT and T. RESSLER, Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 11 (2005) 2124–2133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    I. KHAIROUN, F. C. M. DRIESSENS, M. G. BOLTONG, J. A. PLANELL and R. WENZ, Biomater. 20 (1999) 393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. C. TAS, F. KORKUSUZ, M. TIMUCIN and N. AKKAS, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 8 (1997) 91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    E. FERNANDEZ, M. NILSSON, S. SARDA, L. LIDGREN and J. A. PLANELL, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 61 (2002) 600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. TAKECHI, Y. MIYAMOTO, K. ISHIKAWA, M. NAGAYAMA, M. KON, K. ASAOKA and K. SUZUKI, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 39 (1998) 308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    K. ISHIKAWA, S. TAKAGI, L. C. CHOW and K. SUZUKI, J Biomed Mater Res. 46 (1999) 504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Standard test method for time of setting of hydraulic cement paste by the Gillmore needles, ASTM C266–89, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.01: Cement, Lime, Gypsum. Philadelphia: ASTM (1993) 189Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    E. FERNANDEZ, M. G. BOLTONG, M. P. GINEBRA, F. C. M. DRIESSENS, O. BERMUDEZ and J. A. PLANELL, J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15 (1996) 1004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    E. FERNANDEZ, F. J. GIL, M. P. GINEBRA, F. C. M. DRIESSENS, J. A. PLANELL and S. M. BEST, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 10 (1999) 169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    E. FERNANDEZ, J. A. PLANELL, S. M. BEST and W. BONFIELD, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 9 (1998) 789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    E. FERNANDEZ, F. J. GIL, M. P. GINEBRA, F. C. M. DRIESSENS, J. A. PLANELL and S. M. BEST, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 10 (1999) 223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    R. DEMIRBOGA, I. TURKMEN and M. B. KARAKOC, Cem. Concr. Res. 34 (2004) 2329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    L. M. DEL RIO, A. JIMENEZ, F. LOPEZ, F. J. ROSA, M. M. RUFO and J. M. PANIAGUA, Ultrasonics. 42 (2004) 527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    T. CHOTARD, N. GIMET-BREART, A. SMITH, D. FARGEOT, J. P. BONNET and C. GAULT, Cem. Concr. Res. 31 (2001) 405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    C. S. LIU, W. SHEN, Y. F. GU and L. M. HU, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 35 (1997) 75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    W. SHEN, C. S. LIU and Y. F. GU, Daqing Shiyou Xueyuan Xuebao. 22 (1998) 129Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    A. BOUMIZ, C. VERNET and F. COHEN TENOUDJI, Adv. Cem. Based. Mat. 3 (1996) 94Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringXiamen UniversityXiamenChina

Personalised recommendations