The copolymer of ε-caprolactone-lactide and tricalcium phosphate does not enhance bone growth in mandibular defect of sheep

  • M. Ekholm
  • J. Hietanen
  • R.-M. Tulamo
  • J. Muhonen
  • C. Lindqvist
  • M. Kellomäki
  • R. Suuronen


In the field of craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic surgery there is a constant need for bone or bone substitute. At the present, the most effective way to enhance bone healing clinically is to use autogenous bone grafts. The problems associated with the use of these autografts are donor site morbidity, limited supply and need for a second operative site. Currently there are several different synthetic products commercially available in the market; nevertheless, none of them is ideal for filling bone defects. Therefore, search for new synthetic materials for bone replacement is necessary. A mixture of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and ε-caprolactone-lactide copolymer P(ε -CL/DL-LA) was prepared and implanted in critical size mandibular bone defects in twelve sheep. Contralateral side was used as a control. Follow-up times for histological and radiological studies were 9, 14, 24 and 52 weeks. We found that the implanted material did not enhance bone formation compared to control site. We also confirmed that defect size was of critical size, since there was no complete healing of the control site either. The results do not encourage us to continue our studies with the mixture of TCP and P(ε-CL/DL-LA) as a filling material for bone defects. Therefore the search for the ideal material is still ongoing.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    M. JARCHO, Clin. Orthop. 157 1981 259.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. C. STANTON, J. Oral. Maxillofac. Surg. 62(2004) 2351.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. WILTFANG, Clin. Oral. Impl. Res. 14 (2003) 213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    W. F. A. DUNNEN, J. M. SCHAKENRAAD, G. J. ZONDERVAN, A. J. PENNINGS, B. VAN DER LEI and P. H. ROBINSON, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 4 (1993) 521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    W. F. A. DUNNEN, B. VAN DER LEI and J. M. SCHAKENRAAD, Microsurgery 14(1993) 508.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    W. F. A. DUNNEN, B. VAN DER LEI, P. H. A. ROBINSON, A. HOLWERDA, J. PENNINGS and J. M. SCHAKENRAAD, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 29 (1995) 757.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    W. F. A DEN DUNNEN, I. STOKROOS, E. H. BLAAUW, A. HOLWERDA, A. J. PENNINGS, P. H. ROBINSON and M. SCHAKENRAAD, ibid. 31 (1996) 105.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    W. F. A DEN DUNNEN, P. H. ROBINSON, R. VAN VESSEL, A. J. PENNINGS, M. B. M. LEEUWEN and M. SCHAKENRAAD, ibid. 36 (1997) 337.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. F. MEEK, J. F. A. VAN DER WERFF, F. KLOK, P. H. ROBINSON, J-P. A. NICOLAI and A. GRAMSBERGEN, Scan J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg 37 (2003) 58.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. JANSEN, M. F. MEEK, J. F. A. VAN DER WERFF, P. B. VAN WACHEM and M. J. A. VAN LUYN, J Biomed Mater. Res 69A (2004) 334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    T. NAKAMURA, Y. SHIMITZU, T. MATSUI, N. OKUMURA, S: H. HYON and K. NISHIYA. In ‘Degradation Phenomena on Polymeric Biomaterials’, edited by H. PLANCK, M. DAUNER and M. RENARDY (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992) p. 153.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Y. KUBOKI, M. KIKUCHI, H. TAKITA, R. YOSHIMOTO, Y. NAKAYAMA, T. MATSUDA and Y. IKADA, Connect Tissue Res 44 (2003).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. H. DE GROOT, F. M. ZIJLSTRA, H. W. KUIPERS, A. J. PENNINGS, J. KLOMPMAKER, R. P. H. VETH and H. W. B. JANSEN, Biomaterials 18 (1997) 613.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    T. OZAWA, D. A. MICKLE, R. D. WEISEL, N. KOYAMA, H. WONG, S. OZAWA and R. K. LI, J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 124(6) (2002) 1157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. HILJANEN-VAINIO, T. KARJALAINEN. and J. SEPPÄLÄ, J. Appl. Poly. Sci. 59 (1996) 1281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. EKHOLM, J. HIETANEN, R.-M. TULAMO, J. MUHONEN, C. LINDQVIST, M. KELLOMÄKI and R. SUURONEN, J. Mater. Sci. Mat. Med. 14 (2003) 913.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. K. SCHENK, Acta. Anat. 60 (1965) 3.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. GOLDNER, Am. J. Pathol. 14 (1938) 237.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. EKHOLM, J. HIETANEN, C. LINDQVIST, J. RAUTAVUORI, S. SANTAVIRTA, A. SALO, J. SEPPÄLÄand R. SUURONEN. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 10 (1999) 69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. SENKOULY, E. URAL, K. KESENCI, A. SIMSEK, S. RUACAN, L. FAMBRIC, C. MIGLIARESI and E. PISKIN, Biomaterials 25 (2002) 1174.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. M. GATTI, D. ZAFFE and G. P. POLI, ibid. 11 (1990) 513.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    T. A. LANGE, J. E. ZERWEKH, R. D. PEEK, V. MONEY and B. H. HARRISON, Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci. 16 (1986) 467.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    H. SCHLIEPHAKE and T. KAGE, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 56 (2001) 128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    C. DAHLIN, P. ALBERIUS and A. LINDE, J. Neurosurg. 74 (1991) 487.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    O. BÖSTMAN, E. HIRVENSALO, J. MÄKINEN and P. ROKKANEN, J. Bone. Joint. Surg. 72-B (1990).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Ekholm
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. Hietanen
    • 2
    • 6
  • R.-M. Tulamo
    • 3
  • J. Muhonen
    • 4
  • C. Lindqvist
    • 1
    • 5
  • M. Kellomäki
    • 7
  • R. Suuronen
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial SurgeryHelsinki University Central HospitalFinland
  2. 2.Department of Oral PathologyInstitute of Dentistry, University of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.Department of Clinical Veterinary SciencesFaculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of HelsinkiFinland
  4. 4.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial SurgeryTampere University Central HospitalFinland
  5. 5.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial SurgeryInstitute of Dentistry, University of HelsinkiFinland
  6. 6.Oral Pathology Unit/HUSLABHelsinki University Central HospitalFinland
  7. 7.Institute of BiomaterialsTampere University of TechnologyTampereFinland
  8. 8.REGEA-Institute for Regenerative Medicine and Medical SchoolUniversity and University Hospital of TampereTampereFinland

Personalised recommendations