Effect of iodixanol particle size on the mechanical properties of a PMMA based bone cement
- 96 Downloads
Iodixanol (IDX) is a water soluble opacifier widely used in radiographical examinations of blood vessels and neural tissue, and it has been suggested as a potential contrast media in acrylic bone cement. The effect of the iodixanol particle size on the polymerisation process of the bone cement, the molecular weight, and the quasi-static mechanical properties have been investigated in this article. The investigation was performed using radiolucent Palacos powder mixed with 8 wt% of iodixanol with particle sizes ranging from 3 to 20 μm MMD, compared with commercial Palacos R (15 wt% ZrO2) as control. Tensile, compressive and flexural tests showed that smaller particles (groups with 3, 4, and 5 μm particles) resulted in significantly lower mechanical properties than the larger particles (groups with 15, 16, and 20 μm particles). There was no difference in molecular weight between the groups. The thermographical investigation showed that the IDX cements exhibit substantially lower maximum temperatures than Palacos R, with the 4 μm IDX group having the lowest maximum temperature. The isothermal and the constant rate differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) did not show any difference in polymerisation heat (ΔH) or glass transition temperature (T g) between radiolucent cement, or cement containing either IDX, or ZrO2. The findings show that the particle size for a bone cement containing iodixanol should be above 8 μm MMD.
KeywordsDifferential Scanning Calorimetry Glass Transition Temperature Bone Cement Iodixanol Ultimate Tensile Stress
The authors would like to thank Biomet Europe for supplying the bone cement used in this study and Charlotte Trotzig (Polymer Science and Engineering, LTH, Sweden) for the excellent help on DSC. This study was supported by grants from Medical Faculty at Lund University, Swedish Research Council (project 09509) and Stiftelsen för bistånd åt rörelsehindrade i Skåne.
- 1.L. CARAVIA, D. DOWSON, J. FISHER and B. JOBBINS, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng [H.] 204 (1990) 65Google Scholar
- 2.J. R. COOPER, D. DOWSON, J. FISHER and B. JOBBINS, J. Med. Eng Technol. 15 (1991) 63Google Scholar
- 3.G. H. ISAAC, B. M. WROBLEWSKI, J. R. ATKINSON and D. DOWSON, Clin. Orthop. Relat. R. 276 (1992) 115Google Scholar
- 4.P. ASPENBERG and H. VAN DER VIS, Clin. Orthop. Relat. R. 352 (1998) 75Google Scholar
- 8.T. ALMÉN, Acta Radiol. Suppl. 399 (1995) 2Google Scholar
- 16.C. LIU, S. M. GREEN, N. D. WATKINS, P. J. GREGG and A. W. MCCASKIE, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng [H.] 215 (2001) 359Google Scholar
- 18.S. ABDULGHANI, Thesis title:“An investigation into the mechanical and biological properties of acrylic bone cement containing triphenyl bismuth (TPB) as an alternative radiopacifier” Department of Materials, Queen Mary, University of London (2003)Google Scholar
- 24.K.-D. KÜHN, in “Bone Cements” (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2000) Google Scholar
- 26.G. G. ODIEN, in “Principles of Polymerization” (John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New York, 1981) Google Scholar