Development of a new calcium phosphate powder-binder system for the 3D printing of patient specific implants

  • Alaadien Khalyfa
  • Sebastian Vogt
  • Jürgen Weisser
  • Gabriele Grimm
  • Annett Rechtenbach
  • Wolfgang Meyer
  • Matthias SchnabelrauchEmail author


A key requirement for three-dimensional printing (3-DP) of medical implants is the availability of printable and biocompatible powder-binder systems. In this study we developed a powder mixture comprising tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) as reactive component and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) or calcium sulfate as biodegradable fillers, which can be printed with an aqueous citric acid solution. The potential of this material combination was demonstrated printing various devices with intersecting channels and filigree structures. Two post-processing procedures, a sintering and a polymer infiltration process were established to substantially improve the mechanical properties of the printed devices. Preliminary examinations on relevant application properties including in vitro cytocompatibility testing indicate that the new powder-binder system represents an efficient approach to patient specific ceramic bone substitutes and scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.


Three-dimensional printing Rapid prototyping Calcium phosphate Ceramic Bone repair 



This work was supported by the German Ministry of Economics and Labour (grant no. 134/03).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alaadien Khalyfa
    • 1
  • Sebastian Vogt
    • 2
  • Jürgen Weisser
    • 2
  • Gabriele Grimm
    • 2
  • Annett Rechtenbach
    • 3
  • Wolfgang Meyer
    • 1
  • Matthias Schnabelrauch
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Beckmann-Institut für Technologieentwicklung e. V.OelsnitzGermany
  2. 2.Biomaterials DepartmentINNOVENT e. V.JenaGermany
  3. 3.SciTec DepartmentUniversity of Applied Sciences JenaJenaGermany

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