Mineralised collagen—an artificial, extracellular bone matrix—improves osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells
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In the field of bone tissue engineering there is a high demand on bone graft materials which promote bone formation. By combination of collagen type I with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) we generated a resorbable material which structure and composition is close to those of the extracellular bone matrix. This nanocomposit material was produced in a biomimetic process in which collagen fibril assembly and mineralisation with hydroxyapatite occur simultaneously. In this study the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (hBMSC) on membranes of biomimetically mineralised collagen type I was investigated. To this end, we optimised biochemical assays for determination of cell number and alkaline phosphatase activity corresponding to the special properties of this biomaterial. For cell experiments hBMSC were seeded on the mineralised collagen membranes and cultivated over 35 days, both in static and perfusion culture, in the presence and absence of dexamethasone, β-glycerophosphate and ascorbate. Compared to cells grown on tissue culture polystyrene we found attenuated proliferation rates, but markedly increased activity of alkaline phosphatase on the mineralised collagen indicating its promoting effect on the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSC. Therefore this bone-like material may act as a suitable artificial extracellular matrix for bone tissue engineering. Perfusion of the 2D cell matrix constructs with cell culture medium did not improve proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of the hBMSC.
The authors are grateful to Ortrud Zieschang for preparation of the tapes. We thank Antje Vogel for the SEM investigation. This work was supported by the “Sächsisches Ministerium für Wissenschaft und Kunst” (Saxonian Ministry for Science and Arts, SMWK).
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