Fluoride release for restorative materials and its effect on biofilm formation in natural saliva

  • Omar T. Al-Naimi
  • Toshiyuki Itota
  • Ross S. Hobson
  • John F. McCabe


This study investigated the influence of natural saliva of varying pH on surface biofilm formation of restorative materials and how this influenced fluoride release. Columnar specimens of glass ionomer cement (GIC), resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC), compomer, giomer and composite, were prepared, matured for 24 h at 37 °C and 100% humidity, lapped and then placed in natural stimulated saliva with a pH of 3.8 or 7.1. Fluoride release was determined daily using an ion-selective electrode. The surfaces of selected specimens were observed using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy in conjunction with a fluorescent dye. The surface biofilm formation and bacterial growth was most dominant under neutral conditions and on the surfaces of GICs compared with other materials. GICs released significantly higher amounts of fluoride than other materials. The results suggest that the increased fluoride release of GICs did not reduce the amount of bacterial growth and biofilm formation on the surfaces of these materials when stored in natural saliva.



The authors would like to acknowledge Dr Trevor A Booth from the Biomedical Electron Microscopy Unit / Newcastle University, for his unfailing assistance and the sincere guidance resulting in the images of the highest quality inserted in this paper.


  1. 1.
    J. M. TEN CATE, Acta. Odontol. Scand. 57 (1999) 325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    L. FORSTEN, Biomaterials. 19 (1998) 503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. D. FEATHERSTONE, Dent. Mat. 12 (1996) 194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. STEINBERG, in “Handbook of bacterial adhesion: principles, methods, and applications” (New Jersey: Humano Press, 2000) p. 353Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. HOTZ, J. W. MCLEAN and A. D. WILSON, Br. Dent. J. 142 (1977) 41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. W. G. WALLS, J. Dent. 14 (1986) 231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. S. MATHIS and J. L. FERACANE, Dent. Mat. 5 (1989) 355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. W. MCLEAN, J. W. NICHOLSON and A. D. WILSON, Quint. Inter. 25 (1994) 587Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    K. KAWAI and T. TATAOKA, J. Dent. 29 (2001) 119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    T. M. AUSCHILL, N. B. ARWEILER, M. BRECX, E. REICH, A. SCULEAN and L. NETUSCHI, Eur. J. Oral. Sci. 110 (2002) 48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    C. Van LOVEREN, J. Dent. Res. 69 (1990) 676Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. A. FISCHMAN and N. TINANOFF, Pediatr. Dent. 16 (1994) 368Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    C. J. PALENIK, M. J. BEHNEN, J. C. SECTOS and C. H. MILLER, Dent. Mater. 8 (1992) 16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. U. YAP, E. KHOR and S. H. FOO, Oper. Dent. 24 (1999) 297Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Y. IWAMI, H. YAMAMOTO, W. SATO, K. KAWAI, M. TORII and S. EBISU Oper. Dent. 23 (1998) 132Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    H. FORSS and L. SEPPA, Scand. J. Dent. Res. 98 (1990) 173Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. YOUNG, F. R. Von Der FEHR, T. SONJU and H. Nordbo, Acta. Odontol. Scand. 54 (1996) 223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    L. FORSTEN, J. Dent. Res. 98 (1990) 179Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    T. ITOTA, T. CARRICK, S. RUSBY, O. T. AL-NAIMI, M. YOSHIYAMA and J. F. MCCABE, J. Dent. 32 (2004) 117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    L. FORSTEN, in “Fluoride Release of Glass Ionomers, The Next Generation. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Glass Ionomers, (1st edition, Philadelphia, PA 1994) p. 241Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    D. SALES, D. SAE-LEE, S. MATSUYA and I. DEWIANA, Biomaterials. 24 (2003) 1687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    F. R. TAY, E. L. PASHLEY, C. HUANG, M. HASHIMOTO, H. SANO, R. J. SMALES and D. H. PASHLEY, J. Dent. Res. 80 (2001) 1808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Y. MOMOI and J. F. MCCABE, Dent. Mat. 9 (1993) 151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. M. DIAZ-ARNOLD, D. C. HOLMES, D. W. WISTROM and E. J. SWIFT, J. R. Dent. Mat. 11 (1995) 96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. A. CATTANI-LORENTE, V. DUPUIS, J. PAYAN, F. MOYA and J. M. MEYER, Dent. Mat. 15 (1999) 71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    J. F. MCCABE and S. RUSBY, Biomaterials. 25 (2004) 4001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    K. FRIEDL, G. SCHMALZ, K. HILLER and M. SHAMS, Eur. J. Oral. Sci. 105 (1997) 81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. F. MCCABE, Biomaterials. 19 (1998) 521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    B. BEHREND and W. GEURTSEN, J. Biomed. Mat. Res. 58 (2001) 631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    A. U. YAP, S. Y. THAM, L. Y. ZHU and H. K. LEE, Oper. Dent. 27 (2002) 259Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    I. R. HAMILTON and G.H. BOWDEN, in “Effect of fluoride on oral microorganisms” (Silverstone LM, Copenhagen, 1988) p. 77Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Y. SHAHAL, D. STEINBERG, Z. HIRSCHFELD, M. BRONSHTEYN and K. KOPOLOVIC J. Oral. Rehab. 25 (1998) 52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    H. FORSS and L. SEPPA, Adv. Dent. Res. 9 (1995) 389Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    G. OILO, Adv. Dent. Res. 6 (1992) 50Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Omar T. Al-Naimi
    • 1
  • Toshiyuki Itota
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ross S. Hobson
    • 1
  • John F. McCabe
    • 1
  1. 1.Dental Materials Science Unit, School of Dental SciencesNewcastle UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK
  2. 2.Department of Operative DentistryOkayama University Graduate School of Medicine and DentistryOkayamaJapan

Personalised recommendations