Synthesis and study of structure and phase composition in Cu2–xS, SnxSy, ZnS, CuxSnSy and CuZnSnS pellets
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Synthesis of pure single-phase Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) has attracted much attention of some laboratories and investigation centers around the world. This is important in order to eliminate secondary phases which are detrimental to the final conversion efficiency of the CZTS solar cells. Pseudo-ternary phase diagram showed the formation of pure CZTS using the mixture of Cu2S, SnS2 and ZnS binary sulfides; nevertheless, the gap is very narrow. An additional problem lies in the effective determination of the CZTS purity, because some secondary phases display similar X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra as those of CZTS. The present work addresses a simple, fast and economical synthesis method for the preparation of some binary, ternary and CZTS pellets, which were prepared from their corresponding co-precipitated powders. These tablets can be used not only as a sputtering target but also as a precursor in a solid-state reaction. Among the various prepared compounds, Cu2−xS–SnxSy–ZnS and CuxSnSy are included and characterized to identify their presence in the CZTS pellets. From the obtained results, the usefulness of co-precipitation as a method to produce highly pure single-phase CZTS is discussed.
The authors would like to acknowledge to the research assistants Adolfo Tavira (X-ray measurements), Miguel Avendaño (Raman measurements) and Angel Guillén (EDS-SEM) but also Alvaro Guzmán (Laboratory technician). This work was supported by the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT Mexico) scholarship (336583) provided to Gómez-Solano studying at CINVESTAV-IPN.
- 14.A.V. Rane, K. Kanny, V.K. Abitha, S. Thomas, in Methods for Synthesis of Nanoparticles and Fabrication of Nanocomposites, ed. by S.M. Bhagyaraj, O.S. Oluwafemi, N. Kalarikkal, S. Thomas (Elsevier, New York, 2018), pp. 122–124Google Scholar