Role of electrolyte at the interface and in the dispersion of graphene in organic solvents
- 22 Downloads
The electrochemical exfoliation of graphene is a very useful technique to prepare highly conductive graphene with a low defect level. However, low dispersion stability is a barrier to this process being used to prepare graphene directly in a wide range of applications. Even though the dispersion stability and concentration of graphene are important, the reasons for the lower dispersion stability and lower concentration of electrochemically exfoliated graphene have not yet been clarified. In this study, we identified that the strong electrostatic attractive interaction between charged ions from electrolytes at the interfaces of graphene layers substantially deteriorated the dispersion stability. Both the stability and the concentration of graphene dispersions were substantially enhanced upon removal of the residual electrolytes from the organic solvents used in this study.
This research was supported by the Technology Development Program to Solve Climate Changes of the National Research Foundation, funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (Grant NRF-2016M1A2A2940912 and NRF-2015M1A2A2054996). This work was also supported by the Dongguk University Research Fund of 2017 and 2019 (S-2019-G0001-00030).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 27.Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F.M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I.T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y.K. Gun’Ko, J.J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A.C. Ferrari, J.N. Coleman, High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite. Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 563–568 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2008.215 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.C.-J. Shih, S. Lin, M.S. Strano, D. Blankschtein, Understanding the stabilization of liquid-phase-exfoliated graphene in polar solvents: molecular dynamics simulations and kinetic theory of colloid aggregation. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 14638–14648 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1021/ja1064284 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 32.A.S. Wajid, S. Das, F. Irin, H.S.T. Ahmed, J.L. Shelburne, D. Parviz, R.J. Fullerton, A.F. Jankowski, R.C. Hedden, M.J. Green, Polymer-stabilized graphene dispersions at high concentrations in organic solvents for composite production. Carbon N. Y. 50, 526–534 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1016/J.CARBON.2011.09.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 35.S. Das, F. Irin, H.S. Tanvir Ahmed, A.B. Cortinas, A.S. Wajid, D. Parviz, A.F. Jankowski, M. Kato, M.J. Green, Non-covalent functionalization of pristine few-layer graphene using triphenylene derivatives for conductive poly (vinyl alcohol) composites. Polym. (Guildf) 53, 2485–2494 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1016/J.POLYMER.2012.03.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 36.L. Guardia, M.J. Fernández-Merino, J.I. Paredes, P. Solís-Fernández, S. Villar-Rodil, A. Martínez-Alonso, J.M.D. Tascón, High-throughput production of pristine graphene in an aqueous dispersion assisted by non-ionic surfactants. Carbon N. Y. 49, 1653–1662 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1016/J.CARBON.2010.12.049 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 48.H.M. Yadav, J.-S. Kim, Solvothermal synthesis of anatase TiO2-graphene oxide nanocomposites and their photocatalytic performance, J. Alloys Compd. 688, 123–129 (2016). https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925838816321697. Accessed 8 Sept 2016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 49.R. Muzyka, S. Drewniak, T. Pustelny, M. Chrubasik, G. Gryglewicz, Characterization of graphite oxide and reduced graphene oxide obtained from different graphite precursors and oxidized by different methods using raman spectroscopy. Materials (Basel, Switzerland) (2018). https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071050 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 50.A. Ilnicka, M. Skorupska, P. Kamedulski, J.P. Lukaszewicz, Electro-exfoliation of graphite to graphene in an aqueous solution of inorganic salt and the stabilization of its sponge structure with poly(furfuryl alcohol). Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland) (2019). https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9070971 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 53.L. Xu, J.-W. McGraw, F. Gao, M. Grundy, Z. Ye, Z. Gu, J.L. Shepherd, Production of high-concentration graphene dispersions in low-boiling-point organic solvents by liquid-phase noncovalent exfoliation of graphite with a hyperbranched polyethylene and formation of graphene/ethylene copolymer composites. J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 10730–10742 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1021/jp4008009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 54.M. Lotya, Y. Hernandez, P.J. King, R.J. Smith, V. Nicolosi, L.S. Karlsson, F.M. Blighe, S. De, Z. Wang, I.T. McGovern, G.S. Duesberg, J.N. Coleman, Liquid phase production of graphene by exfoliation of graphite in surfactant/water solutions. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 3611–3620 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1021/ja807449u CrossRefGoogle Scholar