Enhancing the dielectric properties of (Ba0.85Ca0.15)(SnxZr0.10−xTi0.90)O3 lead-free ceramics by stannum substitution
- 68 Downloads
A small amount of Sn4+ content has a great influence in the lowering the Curie temperature (Tc), enhancing the dielectric properties and reducing the piezoelectric performance of (Ba0.85Ca0.15)(SnxZr0.1−xTi0.90)O3 (x = 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.10) ceramics, and this reaction has been systematically studied. The samples were synthesized by using the conventional solid-state route and then sintered at 1450 °C. They were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, ac impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and piezoelectric constant measurements. All the samples exhibited a tetragonal structure. The results showed that the dielectric properties increase as the Sn content increases, and Tc was lowered from 95 to 59 °C. The Tc shifted to a lower temperature due to the smaller ionic radii of Sn4+ being replaced by Zr4+ at B-sites and a decrease in the Ti–O bonds, thus weakening its interaction within the TiO6 octahedral. It was discovered that the tolerance factor becomes larger, and thus the deviation of the Sn4+ ions at B-sites are much easier, with enough space and enhanced ferroelectricity and dielectric properties. However, its piezoelectric properties were decreased since the tetragonality of the samples decreased with the addition of Sn4+ contents. The c-axis becomes shorter and reduces the dipole moment of the TiO6 octahedral. Moreover, the activation energies for Sn-doped BCZT ceramics associated with the ionization of oxygen vacancies create difficulties in electric domain rotation, thus reducing the polarizability of the samples.
This work was financially supported by the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia through the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme 2018 (FRGS Grant No.: FRGS/1/2018/STG07/UNIMAP/02/4).
KNDKM conducted the experimental work and wrote the manuscript, RAMO interpreted the data and designed the experimental work, MSI interpreted and analyzed the XRD data, MHHJ interpreted the piezoelectric measurement data and NHBJ supervised the experimental work using the piezoelectric tester.
- 10.F. Benabdallah, C. Elissalde, U.C.C. Seu, D. Michau, A. Poulon-Quintin, M. Gayot, P. Garreta, H. Khemakhem, M. Maglione, Structure–microstructure–property relationships in lead-free BCTZ piezoceramics processed by conventional sintering and spark plasma sintering. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 35(15), 4153–4161 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.K.N.D.K. Muhsen, R.A.M. Osman, M.S. Idris, Giant anomalous dielectric behaviour of BaSnO 3 at high temperature. J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 30(8), 7514–7523 (2019)Google Scholar
- 14.B.G. Baraskar, P.S. Kadhane, T.C. Darvade, A.R. James, R.C. Kambale, BaTiO3-based lead-free electroceramics with their ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties tuned by Ca2+, Sn4+ and Zr4+ substitution useful for electrostrictive device application, in Ferroelectrics and their applications, ed. H. Irzaman, R.P. Jenie (IntechOpen, London, 2018)Google Scholar
- 16.B.A. Topas, V4: General profile and structure analysis software for powder diffraction data. User’s manual (Bruker AXS, Karlsruhe, 2008)Google Scholar
- 34.A.R. West, Solid state chemistry and its applications (Wiley, Chichester, 2014), p. 438Google Scholar
- 37.C. Chen, H. Zhuang, X. Zhu, D. Zhang, K. Zhou, H. Yan, Effect of Ca substitution sites on dielectric properties and relaxor behavior of Ca doped barium strontium titanate ceramics. J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 26(4), 2486–2492 (2015)Google Scholar
- 40.O. Raymond, R. Font, N. Suárez-Almodovar, J. Portelles, J.M. Siqueiros, Frequency-temperature response of ferroelectromagnetic Pb (Fe1∕ 2Nb1∕ 2)O3 ceramics obtained by different precursors. Part I. Structural and thermo-electrical characterization. J. Appl. Phys. 97(8), 084107 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 41.Huang, X. Y., Gao, C. H., Zhu, Z. W., Pan, L., & Chen, Z. G. (2012, November). Influence of Co2O3 doped amount on the properties of (Ba0.85Ca0.15)(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. In 2012 Symposium on Piezoelectricity, Acoustic Waves, and Device Applications (SPAWDA), IEEE, pp. 9–12Google Scholar