Molar optimization of MnO2 to form composite with Co3O4 by potentiodynamic electrodeposition for better electrochemical characterizations

  • S. V. Khavale
  • R. C. AmbareEmail author
  • B. J. Lokhande


Manganese incorporated cobalt oxide thin films were deposited on stainless steel by using potentiodynamic electrodeposition via aqueous route. The structural elucidation reveals face-centered cubic Co3O4 and orthorhombic MnO2 having polycrystalline nature. FESEM and TEM show porous granular surface morphology along with nano-spikes. AFM image exhibits granular morphology. Optimized samples were studied for further electrochemical characterizations. All CV curves show mixed capacitive behavior. As compared to others, 1% manganese incorporation electrode shows maximum specific capacitance 605.39 F/g at 2 mV/s in 1M KOH. Chronopotentiometric charge–discharge studies report power density 18.12 kW/kg, energy density 33.7 Wh/kg and columbic efficiency 73.89%. To know the internal resistive properties of the electrode, the electrochemical impedance analysis was carried out in the frequency range 1 mHz to 1 MHz. Using Nyquist plot, the observed internal resistance is ~ 0.78 Ω. ZsimpWin software was used to develop Randle’s equivalent circuit to search the circuitry parameters associated with the cell.



Authors are grateful to thank Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi for providing financial supports through the project scheme DST-SERB sanction no. SB/EMEQ-331/2013.


  1. 1.
    F. Béguin, V. Presser, A. Balducci, E. Frackowiak, Adv. Mater. 26, 2219–2251 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. Kötz, M. Carlen, Electrochim. Acta 45, 2483–2498 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    C.D. Lokhande, D.P. Dubal, O.S. Joo, Curr. Appl. Phys. 11, 255–270 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. Wu, Y. Niu, C. Wang, H. Wu, Q. Li, Z. Chen, B. Xu, H. Li, L.Y. Zhang, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 552, 633–638 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    B.C. Kim, G.G. Wallace, Y.I. Yoon, J.M. Ko, C.O. Too, Synth. Met. 159, 1389–1392 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Z. Zhang, Y. Gong, D. Wu, Z. Li, Q. Li, L. Zheng, W. Chen, W. Yuan, L.Y. Zhang, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 44, 2731–2740 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Y. Gong, X. Liu, Y. Gong, D. Wu, B. Xu, L. Bi, L.Y. Zhang, X.S. Zhao, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 530, 189–195 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    S.V. Khavale, B.J. Lokhande, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 28, 5106–5115 (2016)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    S.V. Khavale, B.J. Lokhande, IJRE 2, 20–25 (2015)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    S.V. Khavale, S.R. Bharadwaj, B.J. Lokhande, IJRE 2, 106–113 (2012)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A.V. Thakur, B.J. Lokhande, Chem. Pap. (2018). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    A.V. Thakur, B.J. Lokhande, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 28, 11755–11761 (2017)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    R.C. Ambare, S.R. Bharadwaj, B.J. Lokhande, Measurement 88, 66–76 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    T.D. Dang, T.T. Le Hang, T.B. Thuy Hoang, T.T. Mai, Adv. Nat. Sci: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6, 025011 (2015)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. Xu, L. Gao, J. Cao, W. Wang, Z. Chen, Electrochim. Acta 56, 732–736 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    L. Wang, X. Liu, X. Wang, X. Yang, L. Lu, Curr. Appl. Phys. 10, 422–1426 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    T. Yousef, A.N. Golikand, M.H. Mashhadizadeh, M. Aghazadeh, Curr. Appl. Phys. 12, 544–549 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    X. Cui, F. Hu, W. Wei, W. Chen, Carbon 49, 1225–1234 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    C.C. Hu, C.Y. Hung, K.H. Chang, Y.L. Yang, J. Power Sources 196, 847–850 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Y.F. Lee, K.H. Chang, C.C. Hu, Y.H. Chu, J. Power Sources 206, 469–475 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    B. Wang, J. Park, C. Wang, H. Ahn, G. Wang, Electrochim. Acta 55, 6812–6817 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    W. Wei, X. Cui, X. Mao, W. Chen, D.G. Lvey, Electrochim. Acta 56, 1619–1628 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    D.P. Dubal, D.S. Dhawale, R.R. Salunkhe, C.D. Lokhande, J. Alloys Compd. 496, 370–375 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    R.C. Ambare, S.R. Bharadwaj, B.J. Lokhande, Curr. Appl. Phys. 11, 1582–1590 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    H. Pang, J. Deng, J. Du, S. Li, J. Li, Y. Ma, J. Zhang, J. Chen. Dal. Trans. 41, 10175–10181 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    H. Che, Y. Lv, A. Liu, J. Mu, X. Zhang, Y. Bai, Ceram. Int. 43, 6054–6062 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    S. Jiang, T. Shi, H. Long, Y. Sun, W. Zhou, Z. Tang, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9, 492 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    L.Y. Zhang, Y. Gong, D. Wu, Z. Li, Q. Li, L. Zheng, W. Chen, Appl. Surf. Sci. 469, 305–311 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    A.M. Magdy, I.F. Kooli, S.N. Alamri, Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 8, 12308–12320 (2013)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    B.J. Lokhande, R.C. Ambare, S.R. Bharadwaj, Measurement 47, 427–432 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    C. Hu, T. Tsou, J. Power Sources 115, 179–186 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    G. Wang, J. Huang, S. Chen, D. Cao, J. Power Sources 196, 5756–5760 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    R.C. Ambare, B.J. Lokhande, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol. 132, 245–253 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    R.C. Ambare, S.R. Bhradwaj, B.J. Lokhande, Appl. Surf. Sci. 349, 887–896 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    A.D. Jagadale, V.S. Kumbhar, R.N. Bulakhe, C.D. Lokhande, Energy 64, 234–241 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Y.X. Zhang, M. Huang, F. Li, X.L. Wang, Z.Q. Wen, J. Power Sources 246, 449–456 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. V. Khavale
    • 1
  • R. C. Ambare
    • 2
    Email author
  • B. J. Lokhande
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Physics, Applied ScienceGov. PolytechnicKaradIndia
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsK. M. C. College, University of MumbaiKhopoliIndia
  3. 3.Lab of Electrochemical StudiesSolapur UniversitySolapurIndia

Personalised recommendations