Stabilization of the morphotropic phase boundary in (1 − x)Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3–xBaTiO3 ceramics through two alternative synthesis pathways

  • A. Prado
  • L. Ramajo
  • J. Camargo
  • Adolfo del Campo
  • P. Öchsner
  • F. Rubio-Marcos
  • M. CastroEmail author


In this work, we report the influence of synthesis conditions on the (1 − x)Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3–xBaTiO3 (BNT–BT) system, obtained by the conventional solid-state reaction method with a mechanochemical activation step through two alternative synthesis routes on piezoelectric properties. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman microspectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was confirmed that the stabilization of a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) meaningfully improved the piezoelectric activity. Here, we report that the stabilization of the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) region in the BNT–BT ceramic systems depended on the selected synthesis pathway. Indeed, samples prepared by the direct mechanochemical activation of all mixed BNT–BT reactants showed a correlation between dielectric and ferroelectric properties and a clear sequence in the permittivity values.



This work was supported by CONICET, ANPCyT, and University of Mar del Plata (Argentina). F. Rubio-Marcos would like to acknowledge the support from MINECO for a ‘Ramon y Cajal’ contract co-financed by the European Social Fund (ref: RyC-2015-18626). F.R-M also acknowledges support from a 2018 Leonardo Grant for Researchers and Cultural Creators, BBVA Foundation.

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Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Research in Materials Science and Technology (INTEMA)Mar del PlataArgentina
  2. 2.Electroceramic DepartmentInstituto de Cerámica y Vidrio, CSICMadridSpain
  3. 3.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringFriedrich Alexander Universität Erlangen-NürnbergErlangenGermany

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