Photoluminescence properties of gadolinium phosphate nanoprisms doped with lanthanide ions for multicolor live cell imaging
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Lanthanide fluorescence nanoprobe is versatile in multicolor cell imaging, although it still faces a great challenge in improving its luminescent efficiency. Herein, we validated the feasibility of lanthanide ions co-doped gadolinium phosphate nanocrystals serving as a safe, effective and color-tunable fluorescence probe for live cell imaging. Well-crystallized hexagonal phase GdPO4 nanoparticles with multi-morphologies such as nanowires, nanorods, tetragonal nanocubes and hexagonal nanoprisms were synthesized via a typical hydrothermal method. We have systematically investigated the synthesis of different morphologies of GdPO4 nanoparticles through adjusting their processing parameters. The nanoparticles can gain a bright color-tunable photoluminescence from red, orange, yellow to green region when the GdPO4 nanoparticles are co-doped with Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions. The Tb3+ doping significantly enhances the characteristic 4f → 4f transitions of Eu3+ owing to a specific cross-relaxation process from Tb3+ to Eu3+ ions; the mechanism underlying the cross relaxation was exposited in detail. Further biological experiments in vitro proved that the prepared nanoprisms could exhibit a favourable biocompatibility with negligible toxicity. The current investigation manifests a high potential of the nanoparticles applicable to fluorescence imaging probe for live cells.
The study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11274394), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. 11lgjc12, 21618310), the Special Program for Applied Research on Super Computation of the NSFC-Guangdong Joint Fund (the second phase) under Grant No. U1501501, the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province under Grant No. 2018030310187. The authors are gratitude to Shanghai R&S biotechnology Co., Ltd for their help in toxicity bioassays. Particularly, the authors would like to acknowledge the Tianhe-2 National Super Computer Center in Guangzhou for its financial support in material design and simulation. And the authors are grateful to Ms. Yanting WU and Mr. Deqi Chen for their assistance in the academic editing of this manuscript.
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