Generation of oxygen interstitials with excess in situ Ga doping in chemical bath deposition process for the growth of p-type ZnO nanowires

  • Rajib Saha
  • Nayan Ranjan Saha
  • Anupam Karmakar
  • Goutam Kumar Dalapati
  • Sanatan ChattopadhyayEmail author


The current work focuses on the incorporation of excess amount of gallium (Ga) in zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires to generate oxygen interstitials for developing p-type conductivity. Ga has been used as an n-type dopant in ZnO lattice by reducing its inherent vacancies up to 3% molar ratio of Ga and Zn employing chemical bath deposition technique. However, the addition of more than 4% of gallium nitrate in the bath solution creates oxygen interstitials which are confirmed from the presence of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) peak at 532.6 eV and the relevant cathodoluminescence (CL) peak at 626 nm of the grown Ga-doped ZnO nanowires. The p-type conductivity of such ZnO nanowires has been confirmed from current–voltage, capacitance–voltage and Hall voltage measurements. The reproducibility of the results indicates the incorporation of excess Ga to be a promising technique for growing p-type ZnO nanowires.



Mr. Rajib Saha likes to acknowledge the WBDITE (617-JS(IT)/P/08/2009) for providing the financial support to continue his research work. The authors would also like to acknowledge the DST PURSE program and Center of Excellence (COE), TEQIP Phase-II, World Bank (AC/TEQIP-II/CoE/13) for providing some infrastructural support to conduct this work. The authors are also grateful to Mr. Subhasis Das and Dr. Sunanda Dhar of Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, for providing the Hall measurement facility. Authors are also thankful to Dr. Basudev Nag Chowdhury, Mr. Subhrajit Sikdar, Mr. Subhadip Chakraborty and Mr. Chirantan Das for their valuable help.

Supplementary material

10854_2019_1204_MOESM1_ESM.docx (300 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 299 kb)


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electronic ScienceUniversity of CalcuttaKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Department of Polymer Science and TechnologyUniversity of CalcuttaKolkataIndia
  3. 3.Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research)SingaporeSingapore

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