Advertisement

Energy transfer-enhanced external power conversion efficiency in blended polymeric thin film solar devices

  • Nazir MustaphaEmail author
  • Mohamad S. AlSalhi
  • Saradh Prasad
Article
  • 18 Downloads

Abstract

In this paper, the spectral and electrical properties of a conjugated polymer poly [(9, 9-dioctyl-2, 7-divinylenefluorenylene)-alt-co-(1, 4-phenylene)] (PFO–MEH–PPV) with poly[3-(2-ethyl-isocyanato-octadecanyl) thiophene] (PECOD) in thin films have been studied. First, PFO–MEH–PPV and PECOD were dissolved in tetrahydrofuran and chloroform respectively for different concentrations. These solutions were deposited on glass substrates to form thin films with different thicknesses. The absorbance and photoluminescence spectra for each individual pure polymer were recorded and contrasted with those for blended conjugated polymer’s films to determine the effect of blending on the absorption and photoluminescence. Finally, we present a study on the processing and characterization of organic solar cells fabricated by spin coating pure PFO–MEH–PPV, PECOD and their blend as the organic active layer onto indium tin oxide layer (150 nm), followed by the evaporation of silver cathode (110 nm). The current–voltage characteristics of these cells were determined and external quantum efficiency. Upon blending the two polymers in solid forms, it could be seen that the efficiency (6.25%) for the cells based on a blend layer is higher than the ones without blending (4.4%). Finally, we demonstrated here that the combination/blending of conjugated polymers has resulted in optimized solar device function, with reasonably quantum efficiency higher than 10%.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This project was supported by King Saud University, Deanship of Scientific Research, Research Chairs. We thank Professor Munir H. Nayfeh at the University of Illinois for reading the manuscript and his valuable comments.

Author Contributions

This work was carried out in collaboration between all authors. The idea was proposed by NM who was responsible for writing the draft of the manuscript. SP and MA carried out the experimental work, analysis and discussion of the results. Authors MA and SP reviewed the existing literature and placed the research objectives in perspective. All authors managed the reading, editing and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    C.R. McNeill, N.C. Greenham, Conjugated-polymer blends for optoelectronics. Adv. Mater. 21, 3840–3850 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Barth, H. Bassler, Intrinsic photoconduction in PPV-type conjugated polymers. Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4445–4448 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Li et al., Photovoltaic properties of MEH–PPV doped with new methanofullerene derivatives. Synth. Met. 137, 1527–1528 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. Kumar, T. Nann, First solar cells based on CdTe nanoparticle/MEH–PPV composites. Mater. Res. Soc. 19, 1990–1994 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. He, J. Liu, Y. Li, Y. Yang, Efficient polymer light-emitting diodes using conjugated polymer blends. Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1891–1893 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Babel, S.A. Jenekhe, High electron mobility in ladder polymer field-effect transistors. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 13656–13657 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. Sirringhaus, N. Tessler, R.H. Friend, Integrated optoelectronic devices based on conjugated polymers. Science 280, 1741–1744 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J.H. Burroughs, D.C. Bradley, A.R. Brown, R.N. Marks, K.D. Mackay, R.H. Friend, P.L. Burn, A.B. Holmes, Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Conjugated Polymers. Nature 347, 539–541 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. J. Nozik, Quantum dot solar cells. Physica E, 14, 115–120 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Liu, S.Y. Shi, L. Ma, Y. Yang, Device performance and polymer morphology in polymer light emitting diodes: the control of device electrical properties and metal/polymer contact. J. Appl. Phys. 88, 605–607 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Y. Shi, J. Liu, Y. Yang, Device performance and polymer morphology in polymer light emitting diodes: the control of thin film morphology and device quantum efficiency. J. Appl. Phys. 87, 4254–4263 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    X. Deng, Light-emitting devices with conjugated polymers. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, 1575–1594 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    I.H. Campbell, B.K. Crone, Efficient, visible organic light-emitting diodes utilizing a single polymer layer doped with quantum dots. Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043303/3 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    H. Benten, D. Mori, H. Ohkita, S. Ito, Recent research progress of polymer donor/polymer acceptor blend solar cells. J. Mater. Chem. A 4, 5340–5365 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    D. Olzon-Dionysio, J.F.D. Chubaci, M. Matsuoka, R.M. Faria, F.E.G. Guimaraes, Ion beam assisted deposition of an organic light emitting diode electrode. Surf. Coat. Technol. 204, 3096–3099 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S.C. Veenstra, J. Loos, J.M. Kroon, Nanoscale structure of solar cells based on pure conjugated polymer blends. Prog. Photovolt. 15(8), 727–740 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    T.-Q. Nguyen, J. Liu, B.J. Schwartz, Controlling interchain interactions in conjugated polymers: the effect of chain morphology on exciton–exciton annihilation and aggregation in MEH–PPV films. J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 237–255 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. Kraft, A.G. Grimsdale, A.B. Holmes, Electroluminescent conjugated polymers-seeing polymers in a new light. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37, 402–428 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    S.A. Jenekhe, J.A. Osaheni, Excimers and exciplexes of conjugated polymers. Science 265, 765–768 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    X. Zhang, S.A. Jenekhe, Electroluminescence of multicomponent conjugated polymers. Macromolecules 33, 2069–2082 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    N. Mustapha, Z. Fekkai, A. Alkaoud, Enhanced efficiency of organic solar cells based on (MEH–PPV) with graphene and quantum dots. Opt. Int. J. Light Electron Opt. 127, 2755–2760 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    N. Mustapha, K.H. Ibnaouf, Z. Fekkai, A. Hennache, S. Prasad, A. Alyamani, Improved efficiency of solar cells based on BEHP-co-MEH–PPV doped with ZnO nanoparticles. Opt. Int. J. Light Electron Opt. 124(22), 5524–5527 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. Alyamani, K.H. Ibnaouf, O.S. Yassin, M.S. AlSalhi, Z. Fekkai, N. Mustapha, Spectral, electrical and morphological properties of spin coated MEH–PPV and cresyl violet blended thin films for a light emitting diode. Opt. Int. J. Light Electron Opt. 127, 2331–2335 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    S. Hameed, P. Predeep, M.R. Baiju, Polymer light emitting diodes-a review on materials and techniques. Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 26, 30–42 (2010)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    F.L. Zhang, M. Johansson, M.R. Andersson, J.C. Hummelen, O. Inganas, O. Inganäs, Polymer solar cells based on MEH–PPV and PCBM. Synth. Met. 137(1), 1401–1402 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    S.S. Sharma, K. Sharma, G. D. Sharma, Efficient bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices based on modified PCBM. Nanotechnol. Rev. 4(5), 419–428 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    F. Araujo de Castro, J. Heier, F. Nuesch, R. Hany, Origin of the kink in current-density versus voltage curves and efficiency enhancement of polymer-C60 heterojunction solar cells. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 16(6), 1690–1699 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    R. Kisslinger, W. Hua, K. Shankar, Bulk heterojunction solar cells based on blends of conjugated polymers with II–VI and IV–VI inorganic semiconductor quantum dots. Polymers 9(2), 35–63 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    K. Norrman, A. Ghanbari-Siahkali, N. Larsen, Studies of spin-coated polymer films. Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem. C 101, 174–201 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, Y. Yang, High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends. Nat. Mater. 4, 864–868 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    F. Zhang, K.G. Jespersen, C. Bjoerstroem, M. Svensson, M.R. Andersson, V. Sundström, K. Magnusson, E. Moons, A. Yartsev, O. Inganaes, Influence of solvent mixing on the morphology and performance of solar cells based on polyfluorene copolymer/fullerene blends. Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 667–674 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Y. Yao, J. Hou, Z. Xu, G. Li, Y. Yang, Effects of solvent mixtures on the nanoscale phase separation in polymer solar cells. Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 1783–1789 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    S. Tongay, K. Berke, M. Lemaitre, Z. Nasrollahi, D.B. Tanner, A.F. Herbard, B.R. Appleton, Stable hole doping of graphene for low electrical resistance and high optical transparency. Nanotechnology 22, 42570–42571 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    S.C. Veenstra, J. Loos, J.M. Kroon, Nanoscale structure of solar cells based on pure conjugated polymer blends. Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 15, 727–740 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    C. R. McNeill. Morphology of all-polymer solar cells. Energy Environ. Sci. 5, 5653–5667 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    A. Facchetti, Polymer donor–polymer acceptor (all-polymer) solar cells. Mater. Today 16, 123–132 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    T. Kim, J.H. Kim, T.E. Kang, C. Lee, H. Kang, M. Shin, C. Wang, B. Ma, T.S. Kim, B.J. Kim, U. Jeong, Flexible, highly efficient all-polymer solar cells. Nat. Commun. 6, 8547–8555 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    C. Sun, F. Pan, H. Bin, J. Zhang, L. Xue, B. Qui, Z. Wei, Z.G. Zhang, Y. Li, A low cost and high performance donor material for polymer solar cells. Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1–10 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nazir Mustapha
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohamad S. AlSalhi
    • 2
    • 3
  • Saradh Prasad
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Physics, College of ScienceImam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of ScienceKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Research Chair on Laser Diagnosis of Cancers, College of ScienceKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations