Fabrication and characterization of ZnO incorporated cellulose microfiber film: structural, morphological and functional investigations

  • J. Jayachandiran
  • S. Vajravijayan
  • N. Nandhagopal
  • K. Gunasekaran
  • D. NedumaranEmail author


The cellulose micro fibers (CMF) were extracted from the milled Borassus flabellifer using alkali treatment, bleaching and acid hydrolysis. The purified CMF was functionalized with ZnO nanoparticles and PVA matrix by ultrasonic-assisted solution process. Various properties of the resultant material was investigated which include structural, optical, morphological, thermal, mechanical, functional and electrical properties. The structural, functional and morphological studies show the fine intercalation between the ZnO and CMF. The changes in the electrical and mechanical properties were noticed with the influence of ZnO. Moreover, the significant changes in the functional, optical, morphological and electrical properties were observed for the ozone-exposed film. The ozone exposure enhances the surface uniformity, increase the electrical conductivity due to decrease in band gap. These findings are clearly illustrated the composite of cellulose, ZnO and PVA (CZP) and ozone exposed CZP could be used as biocompatible materials for electronic device applications.



This work was financially supported by University Grants Commission (UGC) sponsored Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship for Students with Disabilities (RGNFD), New Delhi. We acknowledge the facilities extended by the University of Madras, DST PURSE research facility for UV-DRS and AFM analysis. Also, we record our thanks to Department of Printing Technology, CEG Campus, Anna University, Chennai 600 025, for providing the UTM facility. We acknowledge the help rendered by Dr. O. Padmaraj, UGC-DS Kothari Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras for improving the impedance analysis studies.

Supplementary material

10854_2019_904_MOESM1_ESM.docx (425 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 425 KB)


  1. 1.
    Y.-R. Kang, Y.-L. Li, F. Hou et al., Fabrication of electric papers of graphene nanosheet shelled cellulose fibres by dispersion and infiltration as flexible electrodes for energy storage. Nanoscale 4, 3248 (2012). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Montes, P.M. Carrasco, V. Ruiz et al., Synergistic reinforcement of poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites with cellulose nanocrystal-stabilized graphene. Compos. Sci. Technol. 117, 26–31 (2015). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Hänninen, S. Rajala, T. Salpavaara et al., Piezoelectric sensitivity of a layered film of chitosan and cellulose nanocrystals. Procedia Eng. 168, 1176–1179 (2016). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. Khan, Z. Abas, H.S. Kim, J. Kim, Recent progress on cellulose-based electro-active paper, its hybrid nanocomposites and applications. Sensors (Switzerland) 16, 1–30 (2016). Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Kobayashi, T. Asano, M. Kajiyama, B. Tomita, Effect of ozone treatment of wood on its liquefaction. J. Wood Sci. 51, 348–356 (2005). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    C. Daneault, M.M. Sain, C. Lavoie, Graft copolymerization onto wood fibers. Ozone-activated hydrophobization of pretreated wood pulp. Acta Polym. 47, 177–180 (1996). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    K.J. Kim, T.J. Eom, Chemical characteristics of ozone treated aspen wood meal. Palpu Chongi Gisul/J. Korea Tech. Assoc. Pulp Pap. Ind. 43, 29–35 (2011)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Z. Yin, S. Wu, X. Zhou et al., Electrochemical deposition of ZnO nanorods on transparent reduced graphene oxide electrodes for hybrid solar cells. Small 6, 307–312 (2010). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    P. Yang, X. Xiao, Y. Li et al., Hydrogenated ZnO core-shell nanocables for flexible supercapacitors and self-powered systems. ACS Nano 7, 2617–2626 (2013). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    B. Kumar, S.W. Kim, Energy harvesting based on semiconducting piezoelectric ZnO nanostructures. Nano Energy 1, 342–355 (2012). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Z.L. Wang, Progress in piezotronics and piezo-phototronics. Adv. Mater. 24, 4632–4646 (2012). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Acuautla, S. Bernardini, L. Gallais et al., Ozone flexible sensors fabricated by photolithography and laser ablation processes based on ZnO nanoparticles. Sens. Actuators B 203, 602–611 (2014). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. Jayachandiran, A. Raja, M. Arivanandhan et al., A facile synthesis of hybrid nanocomposites of reduced graphene oxide/ZnO and its surface modification characteristics for ozone sensing. J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 29, 3074–3086 (2018). Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    S. Gupta, S. Sindhu, K.A. Varman et al., Hybrid nanocomposite films of polyvinyl alcohol and ZnO as interactive gas barrier layers for electronics device passivation. RSC Adv. 2, 11536–11543 (2012). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A.K. Singh, V. Viswanath, V.C. Janu, Synthesis, effect of capping agents, structural, optical and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanoparticles. J. Lumin. 129, 874–878 (2009). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M.C. Popescu, Structure and sorption properties of CNC reinforced PVA films. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 101, 783–790 (2017). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    H. Liu, D. Liu, F. Yao, Q. Wu, Fabrication and properties of transparent polymethylmethacrylate/cellulose nanocrystals composites. Bioresour. Technol. 101, 5685–5692 (2010). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    N. Johar, I. Ahmad, A. Dufresne, Extraction, preparation and characterization of cellulose fibres and nanocrystals from rice husk. Ind. Crops Prod. 37, 93–99 (2012). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. Thambiraj, D. Ravi Shankaran, Preparation and physicochemical characterization of cellulose nanocrystals from industrial waste cotton. Appl. Surf. Sci. 412, 405–416 (2017). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Y. Guan, W. Li, Y. Zhang et al., Aramid nanofibers and poly (vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites for ideal combination of strength and toughness via hydrogen bonding interactions. Compos. Sci. Technol. 144, 193–201 (2017). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    K. Ravichandran, K. Nithiyadevi, B. Sakthivel et al., Synthesis of ZnO:Co/rGO nanocomposites for enhanced photocatalytic and antibacterial activities. Ceram. Int. 42, 17539–17550 (2016). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    K. Gnanaprakasam Dhinakar, T. Selvalakshmi, S. Meenakshi Sundar, A. Chandra Bose, Structural, optical and impedance properties of SnO2 nanoparticles. J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 27, 5818–5824 (2016). Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    K. Hari Prasad, S. Subramanian, T.N. Sairam et al., Structural, electrical and dielectric properties of nanocrystalline LiMgBO3 particles synthesized by Pechini process. J. Alloys Compd. 718, 459–470 (2017). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    P. Singh, B.P. Singh, Raghvendra, Dispersion in AC conductivity of fragile glass melts near glass transition temperature. Solid State Ion. 227, 39–45 (2012). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    P. Muralidharan, N. Nallamuthu, I. Prakash et al., AC conductivity and electrical modulus studies on lithium vanadophosphate glasses. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90, 125–131 (2007). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    C. Katepetch, R. Rujiravanit, H. Tamura, Formation of nanocrystalline ZnO particles into bacterial cellulose pellicle by ultrasonic-assisted in situ synthesis. Cellulose 20, 1275–1292 (2013). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    I. Lokshina, S. Lugovskoy, S.O. Karabaev et al., Microcrystalline cellulose: extraction and analysis, in Proceedings of the Fourteenth Israeli–Russian Bi-national Workshop, Ariel, 2015, pp. 101–106Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    K. Paulkumar, G. Gnanajobitha, M. Vanaja et al., Piper nigrum leaf and stem assisted green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and evaluation of its antibacterial activity against agricultural plant pathogens. Sci. World J. (2014). Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    M.P. Gashti, A. Pournaserani, H. Ehsani, M.P. Gashti, Surface oxidation of cellulose by ozone-gas in a vacuum cylinder to improve the functionality of fluoromonomer. Vacuum 91, 7–13 (2013). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. Blackwell, Infrared and Raman spectroscopy of cellulose. Cellul. Chem. Technol. 14, 206–218 (1977). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    A.I. Klimuk, N.V. Kozlova, L.A. Obvintseva et al., Study of ozone interaction with microfibrous filter material by IR Fourier and Raman spectroscopy. Russ. J. Appl. Chem. 82, 62–68 (2009). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    H.J. Butler, L. Ashton, B. Bird et al., Using Raman spectroscopy to characterize biological materials. Nat. Protoc. 11, 664–687 (2016). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    I.Y. Prosanov, A.A. Matvienko, Study of PVA thermal destruction by means of IR and Raman spectroscopy. Phys. Solid State 52, 2203–2206 (2010). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    H. Selig, H.H. Claassen, Raman spectrum of ozone. Isr. J. Chem. 6, 499–500 (1968). CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Central Instrumentation & Service LaboratoryUniversity of MadrasChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Centre of Advance Study in Crystallography and BiophysicsUniversity of MadrasChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations