Preparation and microwave absorption properties of Nanomesh Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) covalently functionalized graphene oxide

  • Jing YanEmail author
  • Ying Huang
  • Suhua Zhou
  • Xiaopeng Han
  • Panbo Liu


In this work, we report a simple and effective method to prepare conducting poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/thiophene-grafted graphene oxide (Th-GO-PEDOT) composite with enhanced microwave absorption properties. The first step, the carboxyl group of graphene oxide was converted into an acyl chloride intermediate by treating with thionyl chloride and then reacted with thiophene to give the thiophene group. The second step, the target product of Th-GO-PEDOT was successfully obtained by in-situ polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene on the surface of thiophene-grafted graphene nanosheets (Th-GO). The resulting samples were fully characterized by Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR, X-ray and Vector network analyzer. The as-prepared Th-GO-PEDOT composites exhibited superior electromagnetic microwave absorption performance and showed the minimum reflection loss (RL) of − 47.5 dB (99.9% microwave absorption) at 15.5 GHz frequency and effective frequency (RL ≤ − 10 dB) of 4.9 GHz only 1.5 mm matching thickness. This study found that the strong covalent bond interaction between PEDOT and graphene is the crucial factor for the enhanced EM absorption performance, which provided a method for designing and manufacturing the microwave absorption materials further to meet the requirements of the ideal absorber.



The work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51672222, 51602259). The authors thank the Analysis And Testing Center of Northwest Polytechnic University for Electron Microscopy for their technical assistance in SEM and TEM.


  1. 1.
    L. Yan, C. Hong, B. Sun, G. Zhao, Y. Cheng, S. Dong, D. Zhang, X. Zhang, In situ growth of core-sheath heterostructural SiC nanowire arrays on carbon fibers and enhanced electromagnetic wave absorption performance. Acs Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9, 6320–6331 (2017)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. Wang, L. Cheng, L. Zhang, One-dimensional carbon/SiC nanocomposites with tunable dielectric and broadband electromagnetic wave absorption properties. Carbon 125, 207–220 (2017)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    P. Liu, J. Yan, X. Gao, Construction of layer-by-layer sandwiched graphene/polyaniline nanorods/carbon nanotubes heterostructures for high performance supercapacitors. Electrochim. Acta 272, 77–87 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. Yan, Y. Huang, X. Han, Metal organic framework (ZIF-67)-derived hollow CoS2/N-doped carbon nanotube composites for extraordinary electromagnetic wave absorption. Compos. Part B: Eng. 163, 67–76 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. Yan, Y. Huang, X. Chen, C. Wei, Conducting polymers-NiFe2O4 coated on reduced graphene oxide sheets as electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption materials. Synth. Met. 221, 291–298 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Wu, Conducting polymer coated metal-organic framework nanoparticles: facile synthesis and enhanced electromagnetic absorption properties. Synth. Met. 228, 18–24 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Y. Wang, X. Wu, W. Zhang, Fabrication of flower-like Ni0.5Co0.5(OH)2@PANI and its enhanced microwave absorption performances. Mater Res Bull 98, 59–63 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    P. Liu, Y. Huang, J. Yan, Y. Zhao, Magnetic graphene@PANI@porous TiO2 ternary composites for high-performance electromagnetic wave absorption. J. Mater. Chem. C 4, 6362 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Han, X. Yin, L. Kong, M. Li, W. Duan, L. Zhang, L. Cheng, Graphene-wrapped ZnO hollow spheres with enhanced electromagnetic wave absorption properties. J. Mater. Chem. A 2, 16403–16409 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    A.K. Geim, K.S. Novoselov, The rise of graphene. Nat. Mater. 6, 183 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    K. Yang, L. Hu, X. Ma, S. Ye, L. Cheng, X. Shi, C. Li, Y. Li, Z. Liu, Multimodal imaging guided photothermal therapy using functionalized graphene nanosheets anchored with magnetic nanoparticles. Adv. Mater. 24, 1868–1872 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    V. Georgakilas, M. Otyepka, A.B. Bourlinos, V. Chandra, N. Kim, K.C. Kemp, P. Hobza, R. Zboril, K.S. Kim, Functionalization of graphene: covalent and non-covalent approaches, derivatives and applications. Chem. Rev. 112, 6156–6214 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    C.E. Hamilton, J.R. Lomeda, Z.Z. Sun, J.M. Tour, A.R. Barron, High-yield organic dispersions of unfunctionalized graphene. Nano Lett. 9(10), 3460–3462 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Y. Liu, J. Zhou, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, X. Wan, J. Tian, T. Wang, Y. Chen, Synthesis, characterization and optical limiting property of covalently oligothiophene-functionalized graphene material. Carbon 47, 3113–3121 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    N.A. Kumar, H.J. Choi, Y.R. Shin, D.W. Chang, L. Dai, J.B. Baek, Polyaniline-grafted reduced graphene oxide for efficient electrochemical supercapacitors. Acs Nano 6, 1715–1723 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    P. Li, Z. Qu, X. Chen, X. Huo, X.C. Zheng, D. Wang, W. Yang, L. Ji, P. Liu, X. Xu, Soluble graphene composite with aggregation-induced emission feature: the non-covalent functionalization and application in explosive detection. J. Mater. Chem. C 5 (2017)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    L. Wang, Y. Huang, C. Li, Hierarchical composites of polyaniline nanorod arrays covalently-grafted on the surfaces of graphene@Fe3O4@C with high microwave absorption performance. Compos. Sci. Technol. 108, 1–8 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. Kurapati, F. Bonachera, J. Russier, C. Ménardmoyon, K. Kostarelos, A. Bianco, Covalent chemical functionalization enhances the biodegradation of graphene oxide. 2d Materials 5, 1–12 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A.M. Pandele, C. Andronescu, E. Vasile, I.C. Radu, P. Stanescu, H. Iovu, Non-covalent functionalization of GO for improved mechanical performances of pectin composite films. Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 103, 188–195 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. Yan, Y. Huang, C. Wei, N. Zhang, P. Liu, Covalently bonded polyaniline /graphene composites as high-performance electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption materials. Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (2017) Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    D.J. Kang, H. Kang, K.H. Kim, B.J. Kim, Nanosphere templated continuous PEDOT:PSS films with low percolation threshold for application in efficient polymer solar cells. Acs Nano 6, 7902 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Q. Pei, G. Zuccarello, M. Ahlskog, O. Inganas, Electrochromic and highly stable poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) switches between opaque blue-black and transparent sky blue. Polymer 35, 1347–1351 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    X. Zhang, Y. Huang, P. Liu, Enhanced electromagnetic wave absorption properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofiber-decorated graphene sheets by non-covalent interactions. Nano-Micro Lett. 8, 131–136 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Y. Liu, Y. Ma, S. Guang, Polyaniline-graphene composites with a three-dimensional array-based nanostructure for high-performance supercapacitors. Carbon 83, 79–89 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    W.S. Hummers Jr., R.E. Offeman, Preparation of graphitic oxide. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 1339 (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    G.I. Titelman, V. Gelman, S. Bron, R.L. Khalfin, Y. Cohen, H. Bianco-Peled, characteristics and microstructure of aqueous colloidal dispersions of graphite oxide. Carbon 43, 641–649 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    M.M. Stylianakis, J.A. Mikroyannidis, E. Kymakis, A facile, covalent modification of single-wall carbon nanotubes by thiophene for use in organic photovoltaic cells. Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 94, 267–274 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    M. Wang, R. Jamal, Y. Wang, Functionalization of graphene oxide and its composite with poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) as electrode material for supercapacitors. Nanoscale Res. Lett. 10(1), 370 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    M.G. Han, S.H. Foulger, 1-Dimensional structures of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)(PEDOT): a chemical route to tubes, rods, thimbles, and belts. Chem. Commun. 1, 3092–3094 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    P. Liu, H. Ying, Y. Jing, Y. Yang, Z. Yang, Construction of CuS nanoflakes vertically aligned on magnetically decorated graphene and their enhanced microwave absorption properties. Acs Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8, 5536 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. Liu, J. An, Y. Zhou, Y. Ma, M. Li, M. Yu, S. Li, Preparation of an amide group-connected graphene-polyaniline nanofiber hybrid and its application in supercapacitors. Acs Appl Mater Interfaces 4, 2870–2876 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    A.A. Schaarschmidt, A. Farah, A.S. Aby, Helmy, Influence of nonadiabatic annealing on the morphology and molecular structure of PEDOT-PSS films. J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 9352 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    S. Li, Y. Huang, N. Zhang, M. Zong, P. Liu, Synthesis of polypyrrole decorated FeCo@SiO2 as a high-performance electromagnetic absorption material. J. Alloy. Compd. 774, 532–539 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Y. Zhu, Y. Huang, M. Wang, Novel carbon coated core-shell heterostructure NiCo2O4@NiO grown on carbon cloth as flexible lithium-ion battery anodes. Ceram. Int. 44(17), 21690–21698 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    T.Y. Huang, C.W. Kung, H.Y. Wei, K.M. Boopathi, C.W. Chu, K.C. Ho, A high performance electrochemical sensor for acetaminophen based on a rGO-PEDOT nanotube composite modified electrode. J. Mater. Chem. A 2, 7229–7237 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    P. Liu, Y. Huang, X. Zhang, Superparamagnetic NiFe2O4 particles on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-graphene: Synthesis, characterization and their excellent microwave absorption properties. Compos. Sci. Technol. 95, 107–113 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    L. Wang, B. Wen, X. Bai, C. Liu, H. Yang, Facile and green approach to the synthesis of zeolitic imidazolate framework nanosheet-derived 2D Co/C composites for a lightweight and highly efficient microwave absorber. J. Colloid Interface Sci. (2019). Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    R. Shu, G. Zhang, X. Wang, Fabrication of 3D net-like MWCNTs/ZnFe2O4, hybrid composites as high-performance electromagnetic wave absorbers. Chem. Eng. J. 337, 242–255 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    N. Zhang, Y. Huang, M. Zong, Synthesis of ZnS quantum dots and CoFe2O4, nanoparticles co-loaded with graphene nanosheets as an efficient broad band EM wave absorber. Chem. Eng. J. 308, 214–221 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    P. Liu, Y. Huang, Decoration of reduced graphene oxide with polyaniline film and their enhanced microwave absorption properties. J. Polym. Res. 21(5), 430 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    F. Wu, Y. Wang, M. Wang, Using organic solvent absorption as a self-assembly method to synthesize three-dimensional (3D) reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) architecture and its electromagnetic absorption properties. Rsc Adv. 4(91), 49780–49782 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Space Applied Physics and Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of ScienceNorthwestern Polytechnical UniversityXi’anPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations