Optical band gap and dielectric abnormality in (Sr, Ce, Zr)TiO3 composite ceramics sintered in nitrogen

  • Burhan UllahEmail author
  • Muneeb Ur-Rahman
  • Rajwali Khan
  • Zulfiqar


The crystal-chemical structure, band gap-grain structure and dielectric properties of (1−x)SrTiO3-xCe0.95Zr0.05O2 [(Sr,Ce,Zr)TiO3, for x = 0.0, 0.3 and 0.4] ceramics were investigated. Samples with 0.3 ≤ x ≤ 0.4 appeared cubic by X-ray diffraction (XRD), however, splitting of the peaks along with Rietveld refinement indicated tetragonal structure. The change in the band gap energy with Ce(x) have been investigated and are related to variation in the grain size, activation energy and octahedral tilting. The reduction in band gap energy with Ce0.95Zr0.05O2 ions (x = 0.4) is attributed to the widening of conduction band with octahedral tilting. The absence of TO2 (175 cm−1) mode while the existence of TO4 (521.72 cm−1) mode has been considered as sign of relaxor-like-dielectric behavior. The εT curve and the P–E loop analysis confirms that there is no signature of the ferroelectric phase in all samples. Base on the X-ray photoelectrons spectroscopy (XPS) and high temperature ac conductivity analysis, the dielectric anomalies were due to the formation of lattice defects and defect dipoles (\(~{\text{T}}{{\text{i}}^{{\text{4}}+}} \bullet \text{e}^{\prime} - V_{o}^{{ \bullet \bullet }} - {\text{T}}{{\text{i}}^{{\text{4}}+}} \bullet \text{e}^{\prime}~\), and \({V^{\prime\prime}_{Sr}} - ~V_{o}^{{ \bullet \bullet }}\)) generated by the Ti3+ ions and ionized oxygen vacancies.


Crystal-band gap structure Oxygen vacancies Dielectric properties 



This fundamental research work was supported by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan under initial start-up research grant program with Grant Number 21- 2106/SRGP/R&D/HEC/2018.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Burhan Ullah
    • 1
    Email author
  • Muneeb Ur-Rahman
    • 1
  • Rajwali Khan
    • 2
    • 3
  • Zulfiqar
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsIslamia CollegePeshawarPakistan
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsAbdul Wali Khan UniversityMardanPakistan

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