In situ one pot synthesis of nanoscale TiO2-anchored reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for improved photodegradation of 5-fluorouracil drug
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This paper reports an ‘in situ’ precipitation-reduction reaction for the scalable production of nanoscale TiO2-anchored reduced graphene oxide (RGO–TiO2) nanocomposites. RGO–TiO2 nanocomposites with different weight ratios were prepared by the simultaneous hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and the chemical reduction of graphene oxide. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Ultraviolet–Visible diffused reflectance spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. The most commonly used cytostatic (antineoplastic) drug in cancer therapies [5-fluorouracil (5-FU)] was used as a model pollutant. To examine the effects of RGO, the photocatalytic degradation of 5-FU was examined by varying the operational parameters, such as catalyst amounts, solution pH, effect of scavenger, and TiO2 mass contents. Under the optimal experimental conditions, 97% of the 5-FU present was photodegraded over RGO–TiO2 (RGO–T2) within 90 min under UV light. The RGO–TiO2 composites (RGO–T2) exhibited two times higher photocatalytic activity than that of pure TiO2. The improved photocatalytic activities of the RGO–TiO2 nanocomposites were attributed to the homogeneous distribution of TiO2 nanoparticles over the surface of the RGO nanosheet, enhancement of the light absorption intensity, and suppressed recombination of photoinduced electron–hole pairs.
This study was supported by the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) and the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE) of the Republic of Korea (20174030201530). One of the author, GSG acknowledge Department of Science and Technology and University Grants Commission, New Delhi, for providing grants to the Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, under FIST and SAP programs, respectively.
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