Microstructure and mechanical properties of indium–bismuth alloys for low melting-temperature solder

  • Sanghun JinEmail author
  • Min-Su Kim
  • Shutetsu Kanayama
  • Hiroshi Nishikawa


Application of a low-temperature soldering process is preferred in developing wearable and flexible electronic devices because of the temperature sensitivity of unconventional polymer-based substrates or other low-heat budget materials. In this context, indium-based alloy has advantages such as low melting point, wettability, and thermal-fatigue resistance. In particular, indium has good ductility for elastic deformation without fatigue. These solders were developed for low-temperature applications with the alloying element: 30 mass% Bi, 33.7 mass% Bi, 40 mass% Bi and 50 mass% Bi. The alloys were designed to have an onset temperature between 72.7 and 91.3 °C. In the present study, the effect of alloy composition on the microstructure, melting properties, and mechanical properties of In–Bi alloys were investigated. The analysis on the measured characteristics was conducted to optimize the design of the In–Bi alloy.


  1. 1.
    L. Hu et al., Stretchable, porous, and conductive energy textiles. Nano Lett. 10(2), 708–714 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    T. Sekitani et al., Flexible organic transistors and circuits with extreme bending stability. Nat. Mater. 9(12), 1015 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    P. Lukowicz, T. Kirstein, G. Tröster, Wearable systems for health care applications. Methods Inform. Med. 43(03), 232–238 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    W.S. Wong, A. Salleo, Flexible Electronics, 1st edn. (Springer, New York, 2009), pp. 4–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. Kalifa, G. Chene, C. Galle, High-temperature behaviour of HPC with polypropylene fibres: from spalling to microstructure. Cem. Concr. Res. 31(10), 1487–1499 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Koleva, Poly methyl methacrylate(PMMA). Inject. Mould. Mater. 2(1), 1–5 (2014)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    E.E.M. Noor et al., Wettability and strength of In–Bi–Sn lead-free solder alloy on copper substrate. J. Alloys Compd. 507(1), 290–296 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    K. Suganuma, Advances in lead-free electronics soldering. Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 5(1), 55–64 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Y.-H. Ko et al., Study on joint of micro solder bump for application of flexible electronics. J. Weld. Join. 31(3), 4–10 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. Suganuma, K.-S. Kim, Sn-Zn low temperature solder. In Lead-Free Electronic Solders (Springer, Boston, 2006), pp. 121–127Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    G. Humpston, D.M. Jacobson, Indium solders. Adv. Mater. Process. 163, 45–47 (2005)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    M.S. Yeh, Effects of indium on the mechanical properties of ternary Sn-In-Ag solders. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 34(2), 361–365 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    JIS Z 3198-1, The methods for lead-free solders-part 1: Methods for measuring of melting temperature ranges, Jpn. Ind. Stand., (Japanese Standards Association, 2003), pp. 1–6Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    H. Okamoto, P.R. Subramanian, L. Kacprzak, Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams, 2nd edn. (ASM International, Materials Park, 1990), pp. 748–750Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    N.-C. Lee. Optimizing the reflow profile via defect mechanism analysis. Solder. Surf. Mt. Technol. 11(1), 13–20 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    T. Hakakeyama, Z. Liu, Handbook of Thermal Analysis (Wiley, New York, 1998), pp. 6–13Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R.P. Reed et al., Tensile strength and ductility of indium. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 102(2), 227–236 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Plötner, B. Donat, A. Benke, Deformation properties of indium-based solders at 294 and 77 K. Cryogenics 31(3), 159–162 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A.A. Benzerga, L. Jean-Baptiste, Ductile fracture by void growth to coalescence. Adv. Appl. Mech. 44, 169–305 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. Pineau, A.A. Benzerga, T. Pardoen, Failure of metals I: Brittle and ductile fracture. Acta Mater. 107, 424–483 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Joining and Welding Research InstituteOsaka UniversityIbarakiJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of EngineeringOsaka UniversitySuitaJapan
  3. 3.Connected Solutions Company, Panasonic CorporationKadomaJapan

Personalised recommendations