Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics

, Volume 29, Issue 17, pp 14416–14426 | Cite as

Improved opto-electrical properties of spray deposited ytterbium doped cadmium oxide thin films

  • S. P. Desai
Article

Abstract

Transparent conducting metal oxides (TCOs) associate the properties of high optical transparency and electrical conductivity, which makes them suitable for variety of applications such as window layer in liquid crystal and electroluminescent display devices as well as in solar cells. Among different TCO’s, cadmium oxide (CdO) has received tremendous attention as a potential alternative to Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) due to its high intrinsic dopability coupled with outstanding mobility and high electrical conductivity. In the present study, for first time the doping of ytterbium (Yb) into CdO films prepared using a simple and effective spray pyrolysis technique demonstrated. The structural, morphological and optoelectronic properties of Yb doped CdO thin films as a function of Yb concentration (1–3 at.%) have been studied. X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy, luminescence measurements and for electrical properties Hall effect set up in van der Pauw configuration have been employed to study the properties of Yb-doped CdO thin films. Yb doped CdO thin films exhibit excellent optical transparency, with an average transmittance over 75% in the visible region. It is found that Yb doping widens the optical band gap from 2.63 to 2.88 eV, via a Moss–Burstein shift and further decreases to 2.77 eV. The maximum reflectivity of 97.24% achieved for 2.5 at.% Yb:CdO film. The better values of resistivity, carrier concentration, mobility and figure of merit have been obtained for 2.5 at.% Yb:CdO, which are 2.6 × 10−4 Ω cm, 13.9 × 1020 cm−3, 17.39 cm2/Vs and 45.87 × 10−3 (Ω)−1 respectively. The obtained results revealed that Yb dopant has a significant influence on the optoelectronic properties of CdO-based TCO compound.

References

  1. 1.
    B.J. Ingram, G.B. Gonzalez, D.R. Kammler, M.I. Bertoni, T.O. Mason, Chemical and structural factors governing transparent conductivity in oxides. J. Electroceram. 13, 167 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    K. Hayashi, S. Matsuishi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, Light-induced conversion of an insulating refractory oxide into a persistent electronic conductor. Nature 419, 462 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    T. Minami, Transparent conducting oxide semiconductors for transparent electrodes. Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 35 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. Lewis, C. David, B. Paine, Applications and processing of transparent conducting oxides. MRS Bull. 25, 22 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.G. Gordon, Criteria for choosing transparent conductors. MRS Bull. 25, 52 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    S.P. Desai, M.P. Suryawanshi, S.M. Bhosale, J.H. Kim, A.V. Moholkar, Influence of growth temperature on the physico-chemical properties of sprayed cadmium oxide thin films. Ceram. Int. 41, 4867 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    P.H. Jefferson, S.A. Hatfield, T.D. Veal, P.D.C. King, C.F. McConvillea, Bandgap and effective mass of epitaxial cadmium oxide. Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 022101 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Z. Zhao, D.L. Morel, C.S. Ferekides, Electrical and optical properties of tin-doped CdO films deposited by atmospheric metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Thin Solid Films 413, 203 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A.A. Dakhel, Bandgap narrowing in CdO doped with europium. Opt. Mater. 31, 691 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    A.A. Dakhel, Transparent conducting properties of samarium-doped CdO. J. Alloys Compd. 475, 51 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    A.A. Dakhel, Correlated transport and optical phenomena in Ga-doped CdO films. Sol. Energy 82, 513 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    A.A. Dakhel, Influence of hydrogenation on the electrical and optical properties of CdO:Tl thin films. Thin Solid Films 517, 886 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A.A. Dakhel, Electrical and optical properties of iron-doped CdO. Thin Solid Films 518, 1712 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A.A. Dakhel, Structural and optoelectrical properties of nanocrystalline Gd- doped CdO films prepared by sol gel method. J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 55, 348 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    F.C. Eze, Oxygen partial pressure dependence of the structural properties of CdO thin films deposited by a modified reactive vacuum evaporation process. Mater. Chem. Phys. 89, 205 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    A.J. Varkey, A.F. Fort, Transparent conducting cadmium oxide thin films prepared by a solution growth technique. Thin Solid Films 239, 211 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    B. Saha, S. Das, K.K. Chattopadhyay, Electrical and optical properties of Al doped cadmium oxide thin films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 1692 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A.V. Moholkar, G.L. Agawane, K.-U. Sim, K.Y. Ye-bin Kwon, J.H. Rajpure, Kim, Influence of deposition temperature on morphological, optical, electrical and opto-electrical properties of highly textured nano-crystalline spray deposited CdO:Ga thin films. Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 93 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    L.R. de León-Gutiérreza, J.J. Cayente-Romeroa, J.M. Peza-Tapiaa, E. Barrera-Calvab, J.C. Martínez-Floresb, M. Ortega-Lópeza, Some physical properties of Sn-doped CdO thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition. Mater. Lett. 60, 3866 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. Gulino, P. Dapporto, P. Rossi, I. Fragala, Synthesis and characterization of liquid MOCVD precursors for thin films of cadmium oxide. Chem. Mater. 14, 4955 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    R.K. Gupta, K. Ghosh, R. Patel, S.R. Mishra, P.K. Kahol, Preparation and characterization of highly conducting and transparent Al doped CdO thin films by pulsed laser deposition. Curr. Appl. Phys. 9, 673 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    S.P. Desai, M.P. Suryanwanshi, M.A. Gaikwad, A.A. Mane, J.H. Kim, A.V. Moholkar, Investigations on the thickness dependaent structural, morphological, and optoelectronic properties of sprayed cadmium based transparent conducting oxide. Thin Solid Films 628, 196 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    P. Scherrer, Göttinger Nachrichten Gesell, vol 2. (Springer, Berlin, 1918), p. 98Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    A.V. Moholkar, S.M. Pawar, K.Y. Rajpure, C.H. Bhosale, J.H. Kim, Effect of fluorine doping on highly transparent conductive spray deposited nanocrystalline tin oxide thin films. Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 9358 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    A.A. Yadav, Influence of film thickness on structural, optical, and electrical properties of spray deposited antimony doped SnO2 thin films. Thin Solid Films 591, 18 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    K. Gurumurugan. D. Mangalaraj. K. Narayandass, Structural characterization of cadmium oxide thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis. J. Cryst. Growth 147, 355 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    S.W. Gaarenstroom, N. Winograd, Initial and final state effects in the ESCA spectrum of cadmium and sliver oxide. J. Chem. Phys. 67, 3500 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    R. Nyholm, N. Martensson, Experimental core-hole ground state energies for the elements 41Nb to 52Te. Solid State Commun. 40, 311 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    A.V. Moholkar, G.L. Agawane, K.-U. Sim, Y. Kwon, D.S. Choi, Temperature dependant structural, luminescent and XPS studies of CdO: Ga thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis. J. Alloys Compd. 506, 794 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    G. Haacke, New figure of merit for transparent conductors. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4086 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    M.V. Shaleev, A.V. Novikov, A.N. Yablonskii, O.A. Kuznetsov, Yu.N. Drozdov, D.N. Labnov, Z.F. Krasilnik, J. Semicond. 41, 1356 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    G. Mumoita, C.N.R. Rao, Solvothermal synthesis of CdO and CuO nanocrystals. Chem. Phys. Lett. 393, 493 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Basic Sciences and HumanitiesKITs College of EngineeringKolhapurIndia

Personalised recommendations