Effect of deposition temperature and Zn composition on structure, optical and electrical properties of CdO thin films

  • Sumanth Joishy
  • B. V. RajendraEmail author


Cd1−xZnxO nanocrystallite films with doping concentrations varied from x = 0.00–0.90 were synthesized through a simple chemical route of the spray pyrolysis process using 0.05M precursor solution. The suitable optimized temperatures for different compositions films were obtained by adjusting deposition temperatures from 693 to 723 K. It was found that structures, surface morphology, optical and electrical properties of the films can be altered by changing Zn contents in CdO deposits. The film composition from x = 0 to 0.50 have shown cubic phase with (1 1 1) prominent plane and the composition x = 0.90 shown wurtzite structure with (1 0 1) prominent plane. However, the composition varied from x = 0.60 to 0.80, in the deposits which showed mixed structure of cubic and wurtzite. The crystallite size, dislocation density and microstrain have been evaluated using XRD data. Scanning electron microscope images have shown different surface morphologies for different Zn doped CdO films. The absorption edge was found to be a blue shift with the increase of Zn content, confirming that there is an increase in the optical band gap. Other optical parameters such as extinction coefficient, Urbach energy, and optical conductivity have estimated using absorption spectra. All films show n-type conductivity, and it decreases with increasing Zn content due to decreasing carrier concentration.



One of the authors (SJ) would like to thank Manipal University for granting junior research fellowship and providing experimental facilities. The authors thank UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Mumbai Center India for sanctioning research projects (UDCSR/MUM/AO/CRS-M-212/2015/511).


  1. 1.
    L. Beaur, T. Bretagnon, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, M. Gallart, B. Gil, P. Gilliot, C. Morhain, Phonon-assisted exciton formation in ZnO/(Zn,Mg) O singlequantum wells grown on C-plane oriented substrates. J. Lumin. 136, 355–357 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. Santos-Cruz, G. Torres-Delgado, R. Castanedo-Perez, S. Jimenez- Sandoval, J. Marquez-Marin, O. Zelaya-Angel, Influence of the growth parameters of p-CdTe thin films on the performance of Au–Cu/pCdTe/n-CdO type solar cells. Solar Energy 80, 142–147 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Y.D. Liu, J.S. Lian, Optical and electrical properties of aluminum-doped ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 3727–3730 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Li, J. Xu, X. Chen, X. Zhang, Y. Wu, P. Li, X. Niu, C. Luo, L. Li, Structural and optical properties of cobalt doped ZnO nanocrystals. Superlattices Microstruct. 52, 824–833 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    O. Alvarez-Fregozo, J.C. Mendoza-Alvarez, F. Sanchez-Sinecio, A. Huanosta, The growth and structure of Cd0.95Fe0.05Te thin films grown by radiofrequency sputtering. J. Appl. Phys. 64, 3928–3933 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    U. Ozgur, Y.I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M.A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.J. Cho, H. Morkoc, A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices. J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    K.S. Hwang, Y.J. Lee, S. Hwangbo, Growth, structure and optical properties of amorphous or nano-crystalline ZnO thin films prepared by prefiring-final annealing. J Ceram. Process. Res. 8, 305–311 (2007)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    X.M. Zhang, M.Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L.J. Chen, Z.L. Wang, Fabrication of a high-brightness blue-light-emitting diode using a ZnO-nanowire array grown on p-GaN thin film. Adv. Mater. 21, 2767–2770 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    S.-E. Ahn, H.J. Ji, K. Kim, G.T. Kim, C.H. Bae, S.M. Park, Y.-K. Kim, J. S. Ha, Origin of the slow photoresponse in an individual sol-gel synthesized ZnO nanowire. Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 153106–153109 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    K.L. Chopra, S. Ranyan, Das, Thin Film Solar Cells (Plenum Press, New York, 1993)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Srivastava, R.K. Shukla, K.P. Misra, Photoluminescence from screen printed ZnO based nanocrystalline films. Cryst. Res. Technol. 46, 949–955 (2011)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Vijayalakshmi, S. Venkataraj, R. Jayavel, Characterization of cadmium doped zinc oxide (Cd: ZnO) thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method. J. Phys. D 41, 245403–245410 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    G.M. Li, X.C. Wang, Y.H. Wang, X.W. Shi, N. Yao, B.L. Zhang, Synthesis and field emission properties of ZnCdO hollow micro–nano spheres. Physica E 40, 2649–2653 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    S. Sadofev, S. Blumstengel, J. Cui, J. Puls, S. Rogaschewski, P. Schafer, F. Henneberge, Visible band-gap ZnCdO heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201907–201910 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. Vettumperumal, S. Kalyanaraman, B. Santoshkumar, R. Thangavel, Magnetic properties of high Li doped ZnO sol gel thin films. Mater. Res. Bull. 50, 7–11 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    G. Ferblantier, A. Boyer, A. Foucaran, Electrical properties of zinc oxide sputtered thin films. Microelectron. J. 34, 1087–1092 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    F. Osvaldo Vigil, G. Cruz, G. Santana, Contreras-Puente, Influence of post-thermal annealing on the properties of sprayed cadmium–zinc oxide thin films. Appl. Surf. Sci. 161, 27–34 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    R.K. Gupta, M. Cavas, F. Yakuphanoglu, Structural and optical properties of nanostructure CdZnO films. Spectrochim. Acta Part A 95, 107–113 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A.M. Guillermo Santana, O. Acevedo, Vigil, Structural and optical properties of (ZnO)x(CdO)1–x thin films obtained by spray pyrolysis. Thin Solid Films 373, 235–238 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Y.R. Sui, Y.P. Song, Y.G. Yue, B. Yao, Y. Cao, J.H. Lang, X.Y. Li, J.H. Yang, Cd composition induced effects on structure, optical and electrical properties of sputtered Zn1–xCdxO films. Ceram. Int. 41, 5414–5420 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    I. Singh, R.K. Bedi, Studies and correlation among the structural, electrical and gas response properties of aerosol spray deposited self-assembled nanocrystalline CuO. Appl.Surf. Sci. 257, 7592–7599 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    K. Usharani, A.R. Balu, Structural, optical and electrical properties of Zn-Doped CdO thin films fabricated by a simplified spray pyrolysis technique. Acta Metall. Sin. (Engl. Lett.) 28(1), 64–71 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    M. Azizar Rahman, M.K.R. Khan, Effect of annealing temperature on structural, electrical and optical properties of spray pyrolytic nano crystalline CdO thinfilms. Mater. Sci. Semicond. Proc. 24, 26–33 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Z. Ye, D. Ma, J. He, J. Huang, B. Zhao, X. Luo, Z. Xu, Structural and photoluminescent properties of ternary Zn1 – xCdxO crystal films grown on Si(1 1 1) substrates. J. Cryst. Growth 256, 78–82 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    V. Khranovskyy, A. Ulyashin, G. Lashkarev, B.G. Svensson, R. Yakimova, Morphology, electrical and optical properties of undoped ZnO layers deposited on silicon substrates by PEMOCVD. Thin Solid Films. 516, 1140–1396 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    B.E. Sernelius, K.F. Berggren, Z.C. Jin, I. Hamberg, C.G. Granqvist, Band-gap tailoring of ZnO by means of heavy Al doping. Phys. Rev. B 37, 10244–10248 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    T.K. Subramanyam, B. Srinivasulu Naidu, S. Uthanna, Studies on dc magnetron sputtered cadmium oxide films. Appl. Surf. Sci. 169, 529–534 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    S.S. Shinde, P.S. Shinde, Y.W. Oh, D. Haranath, C.H. Bhosale, K.Y. Rajpure, Structural, optoelectronic, luminescence and thermal properties of Ga-doped zinc oxide thin films. Appl. Surf. Sci. 258, 9969–9976 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    H. Tabet-Derrazn, N. Benramdane, D. Nacer, A. Bouzidi, M. Medles, Investigations on ZnxCd1–xOthin films obtained by spray pyrolysis. Sol. Energy Mater Sol. Cells. 73, 249–259 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    M.S. Gowrishankar, L. Balakrishnan, N. Gopalakrishnan, Band gap engineering in Zn(1–x)CdxO and Zn(1–x)MgxO thin films by RF sputtering. Ceram. Int. 40, 2135–2142 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    X. Tang, H.F. Lu, J.J. Zhao, Q.Y. Zhang, Study on the doping stability and electronic structure of wurtzite Zn1–xCdxO alloys by first-principle calculations. J. Phys. Chem. Solids 71, 336–339 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    P.K. Ghosh, S. Das, S. Kundoo, K.K. Chattopadhyay, Effect of fluorine doping on semiconductor to metal-like transition and optical properties of cadmium oxide thin filmsdeposited by sol–gel process. J. Sol–Gel Sci. Technol. 34, 173–179 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    H. Czichos, T. Saito, L. Smith. Handbook of Materials Measurement Methods, vol. 978 (Springer, Leipzig, 2006)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    S.H. Chaki, M.P. Deshpande, J.P. Tailor, Characterization of CuS nanocrystalline thin films synthesized by chemical bath deposition and dip coating techniques. Thin Solid Films 550, 291–297 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M. Ohyama, H. Kozuka, T. Yoko, Sol-gel preparation of transparent and conductive aluminum-doped zinc oxide films with highly preferential crystal orientation. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 1622–1632 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Y. Caglar, M. Caglar, S. Ilican, A. Ates, Morphological, optical and electrical properties of CdZnO films prepared by sol–gel method. J. Phys. D 42, 065421–065428 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    M. Ali Yıldırım, Sümeyra Tuna Yıldırım, Aytunç AteşCadmium concentration effect on structural, optical and electrical properties of nanostructured CdxZn1–xO thin films. J. Alloys Compd. 17, 30112–30113 (2017)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physics, Manipal Institute of TechnologyManipal Academy of Higher EducationManipalIndia

Personalised recommendations