Nitrogen ion implantation effects on the structural, optical and electrical properties of CdSe thin film

  • Ritika Choudhary
  • R. P. ChauhanEmail author


In the present study, thin films of cadmium selenide (CdSe) are deposited on ITO substrate by electrodeposition method using aqueous solution of 3CdSO4·8H2O and SeO2. These films are implanted with 40 keV N+ ions with different fluencies i.e. 1 × 1015, 5 × 1015, 1 × 1016 and 5 × 1016 ions/cm2 using a beam current of 0.9 µA. The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of pristine and nitrogen ion-implanted CdSe thin films are analyzed using XRD, SEM, AFM, UV-PL Spectrophotometer and I–V four probes setup. XRD analysis revealed the effects of nitrogen ions on the structural parameters such as grain size, FWHM, micro strain and dislocation density etc. Crystallanity of the material increased with increase in implantation dose. SEM and AFM analysis show decrease in the surface roughness with implantation. From the optical studies, band gap value decreased from 2.50 to 2.29 eV with increase in N+ implantation doses. Noticeable changes in the electrical properties are also reported. The effect of N+ ion implantation on the properties of CdSe thin films are discussed on the basis of lattice disorder.



The authors like to thank the Ion Beam Center, Physics Department, Kurukshetra University Kurukshetra, Haryana, India for giving Ion implantation facility. Authors also acknowledge the Director, NIT Kurukshetra, India for XRD, UV-spectrophotometer, PL-spectrophotometer and I–V characterization facilities and also the Director MNIT Jaipur, for giving SEM and AFM facilities.


  1. 1.
    J.Q. Zhang, H. Zhao, T.Z. Ji, G.L. Wu, K.C. Kou, Microhardness and tribological properties of polyimide composites modified by 200 keV Ar ion implantation. Surf. Coat. Tech. 213, 21–25 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Goorsky, Ion Implantation (InTech Janeza, Trdine, 2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J.W. Mayer, L. Eriksson, J.A. Davies, Ion Implantation in Semiconductors (Academic Press, New York, 1970)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Öztaş, M. Bedir, Effect of nitrogen ion implantation on the sprayed ZnSe thin films. Mater. Lett. 61, 343–346 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M.W. Thompson, Defects and Radiation Damage in Metals. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1969)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    S.T. Picraux, E.P. Eer Nisse, F.L. Vook, Application of Ion beams to Metals. (Plenum Press, Berlin, 1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. Namba, Ion Implantation in Semiconductors. (Springer, Boston, 1971). Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    F.F. Morehead, B.L. Crowder, Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Ion Implantation. (Cordon and Breach, New York, 1971), pp 25Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    W. Wesch, E. Wilk, K. Hehl, Radiation damage and near edge optical properties of nitrogen implanted gallium arsenide. Phys. Stat. Sol. 70, 243–248 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    K.L. Narayanan, Ion Implantation Effects in CdS Thin Films. Ph.D Dissertation, Cochin University of Science and Technology (1997)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    K. Senthil, D. Mangalaraj, S.K. Narayandass, R. Kesavamoorthy, G.L.N. Reddy, B. Sundaravel, Investigations on nitrogen ion implantation effects in vacuum evaporated CdS thin films using Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction studies. Phys. B 304, 175–180 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M.L. Gaur, P.P. Hankare, K.M. Garadkar, S.D. Delekar, V.M. Bhuse, CdSe thin films: morphological, optoelectronic and photoelectrochemical studies. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 25, 190–195 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    N.A. Hamizi, M.R. Johan, Synthesis and size dependent optical studies in CdSe quantum dots via inverse micelle technique. Mater. Chem. Phys. 124, 395–398 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    S.H. Im, Y.H. Lee, S.I. Seok, Photoelectrochemical solar cells fabricated from porous CdSe and CdS layers. Electrochim. Acta 55, 5665–5669 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    C. Ronning, C. Borschel, S. Geburt, R. Niepelt, Ion beam doping of semiconductor nanowires. Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep. 70, 30–43 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S.K. Tripathi, J. Kaur, R. Ridhi, K. Sharma, R. Kaur, Radiation induced effects on properties of semiconducting nanomaterials. Solid State Phenom. 239, 1–36 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    F. Atay, V. Bilgin, I. Akyuz, S. Kose, The effect of In doping on some physical properties of CdS films. Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 6, 197–203 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. Lee, Raman scattering and photoluminescence analysis of B-doped CdS thin films. Thin Solid Films 170, 451–452 (2004)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    C.D. Lokhande, S.H. Pawar, Optical and transport properties of chemical bath deposited CdS: Al films. Solid State Commun. 44, 1137–1139 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    A.G. Shikalgar, S.H. Pawar, Electric properties of chemically deposited lithium doped cadmium sulphide films. Solid State Commun. 32, 361–368 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    R.M. Nair, M.A. Khadar, S.S. Kumar, M. Rajalakshmi, A.K. Arora, K.G.M. Nair, Effect of N+ ion implantation on the optical properties of nanostructured CdS thin film prepared by CBD technique. Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 254, 131–138 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    D.D. Wang, B. Zhao, N. Qi, Z.Q. Chen, A. Kawasuso, Vacancy-mediated ferromagnetism in Co-implanted ZnO studied using a slow positron beam. J. Mater. Sci. 52, 7067–7076 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    D. Chen, Q. Guo, S. Yang, Z. Liu, X. Zheng, N. Zhang, A. Xu, B. Wang, G. Wang, G. Ding, Interfacial monolayer graphene growth on arbitrary substrate by nickel-assisted ion implantation. J. Mater. Sci. 53, 2631–2637 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    L. Zhang, H. Liu, X. Suo, S. Tong, Y. Li, Z. Jiang, Z. Wang, Ion beam modification of plasmonic titanium nitride thin films. J. Mater. Sci. 52, 6442–6448 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    N. Shekhawat, S. Aggarwal, A. Sharma, K.G.M. Nair, Surface hardening in N+ implanted polycarbonate. J. Mater. Sci. 50, 3005–3013 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. Jiang, X.D. Xue, Z.Q. Chen, Y.D. Liu, H.W. Liang, H.J. Zhang, A. Kawasuso, Defects and acceptor centers in ZnO introduced by C+ implantation. J. Mater. Sci. 49, 1994–1999 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Q. Wan, X. Bai, X. Liu, Effect of titanium ion implantation on the corrosion behavior of zircaloy-4. J. Mater. Sci. 41, 2133–2135 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    S. Shanmugan, D. Mutharasu, An effect of N+ ion bombardment on the properties of CdTe thin films. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 81, 201–207 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    D.C. Agarwal, D.K. Avasthi, F. Singh, D. Kabiraj, P.K. Kulariya, I. Sulania, J.C. Pivin, R.S. Chauhan, Swift heavy ion induced structural modification of atom beam sputtered ZnO thin film. Surf. Coat. Tech. 203, 2427–2431 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    S.S. Kumar, M.A. Khadar, R.M. Nair, T.R. Ravindran, K.G.M. Nair, Modification of spectroscopic properties of nanostructured CdS thin films by Cu+ ion implantation. Phys. B 405, 2715–2719 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    S. Venkatachalam, Y. Kanno, D. Mangalaraj, S.K. Narayandass, Effect of boron ion implantation on the structural, optical and electrical propertiesof ZnSe thin film. Phys. B 390, 71–78 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    X. Ning, H.B. Bong, Pulsed laser deposition of nanocrystalline ZnSe: N thin films. Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 300 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    S. Chandramohan, R. Sathyamoorthy, P. Sudhagar, D. Kanjilal, D. Kabiraj, K. Asokan, Swift heavy ion beam irradiation induced modifications in structural, morphological and optical properties of CdS thin films. Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 254, 236–242 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    A.M. Al-Baradi, M.M. El-Nahass, M.M. Abd El-Raheem, A.A. Atta, A.M. Hassanien, Effect of gamma irradiation on structural and optical properties of Cd2SnO4 thin films deposited by DC sputtering technique. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 103, 227–233 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    G.R. Kumar, S. Gokulraj, S. Yathavan, Swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation effects on pure and Ce doped Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6 thin films. Mater. Today: Proc. 3, 3982–3986 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    L. Balakrishnan, S. Gokul Raj, S.R. Meher, K. Asokan, Z. Alex, Impact of 100 MeV Ag7+ SHI irradiation fluence and N incorporation on structural, optical, electrical and gas sensing properties of ZnO thin films. Appl. Phys. A 119, 1541–1553 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    R. Choudhary, R.P. Chauhan, Swift heavy ion induced modifications in optical and electrical properties of cadmium selenide thin films. Electron. Mater. Lett. 13, 330–338 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    S. Panchal, R.P. Chauhan, Krypton ion implantation effect on selenium nanowires. Phys. Lett. A 381, 2636–2642 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysicsNational Institute of TechnologyKurukshetraIndia

Personalised recommendations