Synthesis of TiO2:Ce nanoparticles for development of ammonia gas sensors
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A less time consuming and cost ineffective sol–gel method was used to synthesis TiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2:Ce nanoparticles. All the samples were characterized by XRD, UV–Vis, FTIR, PL, SEM, TEM and Raman analysis. The thermal properties were studied by TG/DTA analysis. XRD analysis confirms the formation of anatase TiO2 phase with a preferred orientation along (101) direction and that the lattice constants increased with increasing the Ce doping level. The UV–Vis reflectance spectra showed that cerium doping shift in the reflectance spectra to the visible region and increase the bandgap. The TEM images indicate the particle sizes in the range between 10 and 15 nm for anatase phase TiO2 at 400 °C. Raman spectroscopy was used to identify and quantity the amorphous and crystalline TiO2 phases. All the Ce-doped TiO2 samples showed higher PL intensity than undoped TiO2. The visible emission peaks of pure and Ce-doped TiO2 nanoparticles are mainly associated with oxygen vacancies. The impedance spectrum also exhibited a decreased semicircle radius with the exposure ammonia gas increase from 50 to 250 ppm thereafter slightly increased. Impedance spectroscopy analysis showed that the resistance variation due to grain boundaries significantly contributed to the gas sensor characteristics.
The authors are grateful thanks to SEM and TEM facility for Sophisticated Test and Instrumentation Centre, Cochin, XRD, PL, TGA and Raman Spectroscopy for IISc, Bangalore, and FTIR, UV for Government Engineering College, Burgur, Gas sensor studies for NIT Trichy for providing instrument facilities.
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