Photoelectrochemical activity of Ag loaded TiO2 nanotube arrays produced by sequential chemical bath deposition for water splitting

  • Kyana Mohammadi
  • Ahmad Moshaii
  • Maryam Azimzadehirani
  • Zahra-Sadat Pourbakhsh


We report on remarkable improvement of photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of TiO2 nanotubes by loading of Ag nanoparticles into them. The silver nanoparticles were loaded on the nanotubes by sequential chemical bath deposition (S-CBD) with different number of deposition cycles. Various characterizations including field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), all confirm that the silver nanoparticles were deposited inside and outside of TiO2 nanotubes. In addition, the PEC properties of the samples were investigated using linear sweep voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The PEC analyses clearly show that the photo-electrochemical activity of the Ag-loaded samples are considerably higher than the bare TiO2 nanotubes (about 3 times). This mostly originates from the improvement of light absorption due to the plasmonic effects in addition to better separation and transport of electron–hole pairs in the Ag-loaded samples relative to the bare TiO2 nanotubes. All results indicate that the maximum efficiency were obtained for the 8-cycle of S-CBD Ag-loading on the bare TiO2 nanotubes.



We acknowledge Tarbiat Modares University for funding support of this work.


  1. 1.
    T.N. Veziroğlu, S. Şahi, Energy Convers. Manage. (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Zhang, B. Peng, S. Yang, H. Wang, H. Yu, Y. Fang, F. Peng, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (2015) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    H.M. Chen, C.K. Chen, C.J. Chen, L.C. Cheng, P.C. Wu, B.H. Cheng, Y.Z. Ho et al. ACS Nano (2012) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    P. Kumar, P. Sharma, R. Shrivastav, S. Dass, V.R. Satsangi, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (2011) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Y. Sun, C.J. Murphy, K.R. Reyes-Gi, E.A. Reyes-Garcia, J.M. Thornton, N.A. Morris, D. Raftery, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Li, N. Wu, Catal. Sci. Technol. (2014) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. Fujishima, K. Honda, Nature (1972) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. Qiu, X. Li, X. Gao, X. Gan, B. Weng, L. Li, Z. Yuan, Z. Shi, Y.H. Hwang, J. Mater. Chem. (2012) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Y.L. Pang, S. Lim, H.C. Ong, W.T. Chong, Appl. Catal. A (2014) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    N. Baram, Y. Ein-Eli, J. Phys. Chem. C (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    L. Roman, R.D. Trusca, M.L. Soare, C. Fratila, E. Krasicka-Cydzik, M.S. Stan, A. Dinischiotu, Mater. Sci. Eng. (2014) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Preda, V.S. Teodorescu, A.M. Musuc, C. Andronescu, M. Zaharescu, J. Mater. Res. (2013) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    K. Xie, L. Sun, C. Wang, Y. Lai, M. Wang, H. Chen, C. Lin, Electrochim. Acta (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    S. Liu, E. Guo, L. Yin, J Mater Chem. (2012) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A.L. Linsebigler, L. Amy, G. Lu, J.R. Yates Jr., Chem. Rev. (1995) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    N. Lu, X. Quan, J. Li, S. Chen, H.T. Yu, G.H. Chen, J. Phys. Chem. C (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J.H. Park, S. Kim, A.J. Bard, Nano Lett. (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Y. Huo, Y. Jin, J. Zhu, H. Li, Appl. Catal. B (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    L. Sun, J. Li, C.L. Wang, S.F. Li, H.B. Chen, C.J. Lin, Sol Energy Mater. Sol Cells (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    H. Liu, G. Liu, Q. Zhou, J. Solid State Chem. (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    T.S. Kang, A.P. Smith, B.E. Taylor, M.F. Durstock, Nano Lett. (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Z. Liu, V. Subramania, M. Misra, J. Phys. Chem. C (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    M. Sadeghi, W. Liu, T.G. Zhang, P. Stavropoulos, B. Levy, J. Phys. Chem. (1996) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Y. Bessekhouad, D. Robert, J.V. Weber, Catal. Today (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Y. Xie, G. Ali, S.H. Yoo, S.O. Cho, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    L. Yang, S. Luo, Y. Li, Y. Xiao, Q. Kang, Q. Cai, Environ. Sci. Technol. (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Q. Wang, X. Yang, D. Liu, J. Zhao, J. Alloys Compd. (2012) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    H.J. Lin, T.S. Yang, C.H. His, M.C. Wang, K.C. Lee, Ceram. Int. (2014) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    S. Lin, D. Li, J. Wu, X. Li, S.A. Akbar, Sens. Actuators B (2011) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Y.H. Lin, T.K. Tseng, H. Chu, Appl. Catal. A (2014) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    K. Chen, X. Feng, R. Hu, Y. Li, K. Xie, Y. Li, H. Gu, J. Alloys Compd. (2013) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    U. Kreibig, M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters, 1st edn. (Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 2013), pp. 13–201Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    K. Matsubara, T. Tatsuma, Adv. Mater. (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    H. Zhang, G. Wang, D. Chen, X. Lv, J. Li, Chem. Mater. (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    I. Paramasivam, J.M. Macak, A. Ghicov, P. Schmuki, Chem. Phys. Lett. (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    G. Guo, B. Yu, P. Yu, X. Chen, Talanta (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    X. Liu, Z. Liu, J. Lu, X. Wu, B. Xu, W. Chu, Appl. Surf. Sci. (2014) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    L. Sun, J. Li, C. Wang, S. Li, Y. Lai, H. Chen, C. Lin, J. Hazard. Mater. (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    J. Jiao, J. Tang, W. Gao, D. Kuang, Y. Tong, L. Chen, J. Power Sources (2015) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    E. Thimsen, F.L. Formal, M. Grätzel, S.C. Warren, Nano Lett. (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    C.F. Bohren, D.R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles, 1st edn. (Wiley, Weinheim, 2008), pp. 3–11Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    C.F. Bohren, D.R. Huffman, Chem. Rev. (2011) CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysicsTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran

Personalised recommendations