Advertisement

Failure stress comparison of different pairings of Ag-plating and reflow-oven-processed pressureless-sintered-Ag interconnects

  • Andrew A. Wereszczak
  • Branndon R. Chen
  • Brian A. Oistad
  • Shirley B. Waters
  • Alicia T. Mayville
Article
  • 11 Downloads

Abstract

Sintered-silver is a candidate material to supplant solders for interconnects in power electronic packaging for many reasons including its desirably high electrical and thermal conductivities and compliance to Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) guidelines. The shear failure stress of interconnects though is limited by whatever constituent is the weakest, and that includes any employed plating. In the present study, silver-platings were processed electrolytically, electrolessly, and through sputter deposition and their influence on the entire “interconnect system” shear strength was examined. Test sets employing gold plating and no plating were included for comparison and to aid interpretation. Ambient-air, reflow-oven-processed, pressureless-sintered-silver interconnects were identically fabricated with all plating test sets. It was found that all considered silver-plating methods produced consistently strong (characteristic failure stresses > 55 MPa) sintered-silver interconnects. Because failures tended to be adhesive in all six sets, differences in failure stress among the silver-plated sets and the gold-plated or unplated sets were likely due to differences in the adhesive strength of the sintered silver with silver-plating, gold-plating, or direct bonding with copper.

Notes

Acknowledgements

Research sponsored by the Electric Drive Technologies Program, DOE Vehicle Technologies Office, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC. The authors thank USDOE’s S. Rogers and ORNL’s B. Ozpineci for their financial and programmatic support, S. Campbell for reflow oven assistance, R. Wiles for CAD assistance, M. Lance for surface roughness measurements, K. Jones for formatting assistance, and E. Gurpinar, E. Lara-Curzio, and L. Marlino for their reviews and helpful inputs.

References

  1. 1.
    K.S. Siow, Are sintered silver joints ready for use as interconnect material in microelectronic packaging?. J. Electron. Mater. 43, 947–961 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S.T. Chua, K.S. Siow, Microstructural studies and bonding strength of pressureless sintered nano-silver joints on silver, direct bond copper (DBC) and copper substrates aged at 300 °C. J. Alloy. Compd. 687, 486–498 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    S.T. Chua, K.S. Siow, A. Jalar, Effect of sintering atmosphere on the shear properties of pressureless sintered silver joint, in 36th International Electronics Manufacturing Technology Conference (Johor, Malaysia, 2014), pp. 1–6.  https://doi.org/10.1109/IEMT.2014.7123119
  4. 4.
    F. Liao, X. Han, Y. Zhang, C. Xu, H. Chen, Carbon fabrics coated with nickel film through alkaline electroless plating technique. Mater. Lett. 205, 165–168 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    B. Navinsek, P. Panjan, I. Milosev, PVD coatings as an environmentally clean alternative to electroplating and electroless processes, Surf. Coat. Technol. 116–119, 476–487 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    LOCTITE ABLESTIK SSP 2020, Henkel Corporation, Safety Data Sheet, October 2014Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    LOCTITE ABLESTIK SSP 2020, Henkel Corporation, Technical Data Sheet, December 2012Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A.A. Wereszczak, M.C. Modugno, B.R. Chen, W.M. Carty, Contact drying of printed sinterable-silver paste. IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Technol. (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1109/TCPMT.2017.2752140 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. Chen, C. LaBarbera, N.-C. Lee, 2016, Silver sintering paste rendering low porosity joint for high power die attach application, IMAPS HiTEC 2016, Paper WP23, Albuquerque, NM, pp. 134–142Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A.A. Wereszczak, B.R. Chen, B.A. Oistad, Reflow-oven-processing of pressureless sintered-silver interconnects. J. Mater. Process. 255, 500–506 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2018.01.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    S.P. Timoshenko, J.N. Goodier, Theory of Elasticity, 3rd edn. (International Student Edition, Mc-Graw-Hill, Singapore, 1970)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A.A. Wereszczak, Z. Liang, M.K. Ferber, L.D. Marlino, Uniqueness and challenges of sintered silver as a bonded interface material. J. Microelectron. Electron. Packag. 11, 158–165 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A.A. Wereszczak, B.R. Chen, O.M. Jadaan, M.C. Modugno, J.W. Sharp, J.R. Salvador, Failure response of sintered-silver interconnects via cantilever testing. J. Mater. Sci. 29, 1530–1541 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-017-8063-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. Li, X. Li, L. Wang, Y.-H. Mei, G.-Q. Lu, A novel multiscale silver paste for die bonding on bare copper by low-temperature pressure-free sintering in air. Mater. Des. 140, 64–72 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2017.11.054 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Q. Xu, Y. Mei, X. Li, G.-Q. Lu, Correlation between interfacial microstructure and bonding strength of sintered nanosilver on ENIG and electroplated Ni/Au direct-bond-copper (DBC) substrates. J. Alloy Compd. 675, 317–324 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J.G. Bai, G.-Q. Lu, Thermomechanical reliability of low-temperature sintered silver die attached SiC power device assembly. IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 6, 436–441 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. Khazaka, L. Mendizabal, D. Henry, Review on joint shear strength of nano-silver paste and its long-term high temperature reliability. J. Electron. Mater. 43, 2459–2466 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    X. Liu, H. Nishikawa, Pressureless sintering bonding using hybrid microscale Cu particle paste on ENIG, pure Cu and pre-oxidized Cu substrate by an oxidation-reduction process. J. Mater. Sci. 28, 5554–5561 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    S.A. Paknejad, G. Dumas, G. West, G. Lewis, S.H. Mannan, Microstructure evolution during 300 C storage of sintered Ag nanoparticles on Ag and Au substrates. J. Alloy Compd. 617, 994–1001 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    T. Wang, X. Chen, G.-Q. Lu, G.-Y. Lei, Low-temperature sintering with nano-silver paste in die-attached interconnection. J. Electron. Mater. 36, 1333–1340 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. Jiu, H. Zhang, S. Koga, S. Nagao, Y. Isumi, K. Suganuma, Simultaneous synthesis of nano and micro-Ag particles and their application as a die-attachment material. J. Mater. Sci. 26, 7183–7191 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-015-3343-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Knoerr, S. Kraft, A. Schletz, Reliability assessment of sintered nano-silver die attachment for power semiconductors, in 2010 12th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference (Singapore, 2010), pp. 56–61.  https://doi.org/10.1109/EPTC.2010.5702605
  23. 23.
    J.H.L. Pang, T.H. Low, B.S. Xiong, X. Luhua, C.C. Neo, Thermal cycling aging effects on Sn–Ag–Cu solder joint microstructure, IMC and strength, Thin Solid Films 462–463:370–375. (2004).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2004.05.092 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Oak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA
  2. 2.Oak Ridge Associated UniversitiesOak RidgeUSA

Personalised recommendations