Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics

, Volume 29, Issue 22, pp 19472–19483 | Cite as

Probing of electric and magnetic properties of holmium doped iron oxide nanoparticles

  • Ruqiya Bhat
  • Basharat Want
  • Arfat Firdous
  • G. N. Dar
Article
  • 38 Downloads

Abstract

Lanthanide based nanoparticles due to their high magnetic moments and efficient optical properties are potential candidates for various applications. In this paper we report holmium (Ho3+) ion doped iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) with different concentrations; ⍺-HoxFe2−xO3 (x = 0.00, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07) synthesized by sol–gel method. The synthesized NPs were studied for dielectric and magnetic properties and were thoroughly characterized using various analytical techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), etc. The PXRD confirms hexagonal structure of pure and Ho3+ ion doped iron oxide NPs. The presence of Ho3+ ions was observed by EDS technique. The dielectric studies were carried out at (i) varying temperature (100–400 K) at constant frequency of 100 kHz and (ii) varying frequency (20 Hz–1000 kHz) at constant temperature of 298 K. Both temperature and frequency dependent dielectric studies shows increase in dielectric constant and decrease in dielectric loss with the increase in Ho3+ ion concentration in ⍺-Fe2O3 system. The high values of dielectric constant and low values of dielectric loss at higher frequencies makes these materials as potential candidates for microwave applications. Also the conductivity increases with increase in temperature in the systems studied, indicates semiconducting behavior and decrease in conductivity is observed with Ho3+ ion doping. The conductivity behavior follows Motts law, confirming the variable range hopping mechanism in all the synthesized systems. The magnetic studies shows that the addition of Ho3+ ions in ⍺-Fe2O3 lattice significantly modifies the magnetic properties. On comparing to pure phase, an increase in saturation magnetization was observed for all the samples with Ho3+ ion doping.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Dr. K. Asokan, IUAC, New Delhi for the dielectric measurement facility. One of the authors Ruqiya Bhat thanks UGC, Govt. of India, for Mualana Azad National Fellowship (MANF) Vide Reference No. F1-17.1/2015-16/MANF-2015-17-JAM-49627. Corresponding author G. N. Dar acknowledges Ministry of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India, for financial support Vide Reference No. DST/TM/WTI/2K16/248 (G).

References

  1. 1.
    D.E. Speliotis, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 193, 29 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Laurent, D. Forge, M. Port, A. Roch, C. Robic, L.V. Elst, R.N. Muller, Chem. Rev. 108, 2064 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    S.A. Teja, P.Y. Koh, Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 55, 22 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. Portet, B. Denizot, E. Rump, J.J. Lejeune, P. Jallet, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 238, 37 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Aires, S.M. Ocampo, B.M. Simoes, M.J. Rodriguez, J.F. Cadenas, P. Couleaud, K. Spence, A. Latorre, R. Miranda, Á Somoza, R.B. Clarke, J.L. Carrascosa, A.L. Cortajarena, Nanotechnology 27, 065103 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. Reiss, A. Hutten, Nat. Mater. 4, 725 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Cano, K. Sbargoud, E. Allard, C. Larpent, Green Chem. 14, 1786 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Y. Lu, Y. Yin, B.T. Mayers, Y. Xia, Nano Lett. 2, 183 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M.V. Nikolic, M.P. Slankamenac, N. Nikolic, D.L. Sekulic, O.S. Aleksic, M. Mitric, T. Ivetic, V.B. Pavlovic, P.M. Nikolic, Sci. Sin. 44, 307 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. Satheesh, K. Vignesh, A. Suganthi, M. Rajarajan, J. Environ. Eng. 2, 1956 (2014)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    E. Alzahrani, A. Sharfalddin, M. Alamodi, ANP 4, 53 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    C.R. De Silva, S. Smith, I. Shim, J. Pyun, T. Gutu, J. Jiao, Z. Zheng, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 6336 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    L.E. Mathevula, L.L. Noto, B.K. Mothudi, M.S. Dhlamini, Physica B. (2017)  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physb.2017.07.053 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. Frandsen, C.R.H. Bahl, B. Lebech, K. Lefmann, L.T. Kuhn, L. Keller, N.H. Andersen, M.V. Zimmermann, E. Johnson, S.N. Klausen, S. Morup, Phys. Rev. B 72, 214406 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    F. Bodker, M.F. Hansen, C.B. Koch, K. Lefmann, S. Morup, Phys. Rev. B 61, 6826 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M.F. Hansen, C.B. Koch, S. Morup, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1124 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    G. Goyala, A. Dograb, S. Rayaprol, S.D. Kaushik, V. Siruguri, H. Kishan, Mater. Chem. Phys. 134, 133 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    F.S. Freyria, G. Barrera, P. Tiberto, E. Belluso, D. Levy, G. Saracco, P. Allia, E. Garrone, B. Bonelli, J. Solid State Chem. 201, 302 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J.S. Justus, S.D.D. Roy, A.M.E. Raj, JASEM. 2, 272 (2016)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    S. Bagheri, K.G.S. Chandrappa, B. A. Hamid. Res. J. Chem. Sci. 3, 62 (2013)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Tadica, M. Panjan, V. Damnjanovi, I. Milosevicd, Appl. Surf. Sci. 320, 183 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    E.J. Mittemeijer, U. Welzel, Z. F. Krist. 223, 552 (2008)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    S. Anand, V. Maria Vinosel, M. Asisi Jenifer, S. Pauline, IRJET. 4, 358 (2017)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    M.T. Farid, I. Ahmad, S. Aman, M. Kanwal, G. Murtaza, I. Ali, I. Ahmad, M. Ishfaq, Dig. J. Nanometer. Bios. 10, 265 (2015)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    S.S. Shinde, R.A. Bansode, C.H. Bhosale, K.Y. Rajpure, J. Semicond. 32, 3001 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. Mahalakshmi, K.S. Manja, J. Alloys Compd. 457, 522 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    D. Ravinder, P.V.B. Redddy, Mater. Lett. 57, 4344 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    S.S.N. Murthy, V.R.K. Murthy, J. Sobhanadri, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2159 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    J.C. Maxwell, Electricity and magnetism, (London: Oxford University Press, 1873), pp. 489Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    V.S. Sawant, S.S. Shinde, R.J. Deokate, C.H. Bhosale, B.K. Chougule, K.Y. Rajpure, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 6675 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    A.R. Babar, S.S. Shinde, A.V. Moholkar, K.Y. Rajpure, J. Alloys Compd. 505, 743 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    K.R. Krishna, D. Ravinder, K.V. Kumar, U.S. Joshi, V.A. Rana, A. Lincon, WJCMP. 2, 57 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    M. Ishaque, M.U. Islam, M.A. Khan, I.Z. Rahman, A. Genson, S. Hampshire, Physica B: 405, 1532 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    A.A. Kadam, S.S. Shinde, S.P. Yadav, P.S. Patil, K.Y. Rajpure, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 329, 59 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    K.M. Rosso, D.M.A. Smith, M. Dupuis, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 6455 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    J.C. Papaioannoua, G.S. Patermarakis, H.S. Karayianni, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 66, 839 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    R.S. Vemuri, K.K. Bharathi, S.K. Gullapalli, C.V. Ramana, ACS Appl. Mater. Inter. 2, 2623 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    K.K. Bharathi, G. Markandeyulu, C.V. Ramana, J. Electrochem. Soc 158, 71 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    A. Azam, A. Jawad, A.S. Ahmed, M. Chaman, A.H. Naqvi, J. Alloys. comp. 509, 2909 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    C. Nlebedim, K.W. Dennis, R.W. McCallum, D.C. Jiles, J. Appl. Phys. 115, 043903 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    S.R. Elliott, Physics of amorphous materials, 2nd edn. (Longman Scientific and Technical, Hong Kong, 1984), p. 402Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    N.F. Mott, Phil. Mag. 19, 835 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    B.D. Cullity, Introduction to magnetic material, 2nd edn. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 2008), p. 568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    B. Want, R. Samad, M.D. Rather, JoM. 22, 450 (2017)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    R. Grossinger, Phys. Status Solidi A 66, 665 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of KashmirSrinagarIndia
  2. 2.Islamia College of Science and CommerceSrinagarIndia

Personalised recommendations