Effect of thermal calcination on the structural, dielectric and magnetic properties of (ZnO–Ni) semiconductor

  • Rajwali Khan
  • Zulfiqar
  • Clodoaldo Irineu Levartoski de Araujo
  • Tahirzeb Khan
  • Shaukat Ali Khattak
  • Ejaz Ahmed
  • Aurangzeb Khan
  • Burhan Ullah
  • Gulzar Khan
  • Kashif Safeen
  • Akif Safeen
  • Syed Adnan Raza


We report the variations in structural, dielectric and magnetic properties with elevation of calcination temperature of (ZnO, Ni), synthesized by hydrothermal route. Incorporation of Ni in ZnO lattice is accompanied by numerous oxygen vacancies. With increasing calcinations temperature, enhancement in particle size with improvement in crystallization are observed, which is most probably due to grain growth having less number of grain boundaries and enhancement in grain volume. The dielectric behavior gives deep insight of (ZnO, Ni) nanoparticles microstructure. The abrupt increase in A.C. conductivity (σa.c) at high frequencies arises due to the addition of detached charge carrier from trap states to the conduction charge carriers. The (ZnO, Ni) nanoparticles, calcined at different temperatures, show significant changes in the hysteresis loop of ZnO nanoparticles: the loop shows strong ferromagnetic (FM) behavior. The magnetization enhances with increasing the calcination temperature of the particle (Ni, ZnO). Defects (oxygen vacancies) are found to be the main reason for room-temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) in the (ZnO, Ni) nanoparticles. The enhanced dielectric and magnetic properties of (ZnO, Ni) nanoparticles are strongly correlated with the increase of oxygen vacancies.



This work is financially supported by the Higher Education Research Endowment Fund (NO.PMU1-22/HEREF/2014-15/Vol-111/) Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Pakistan, Higher Education Commission under START-UP RESEARCH GRANT PROGRAM (Grant No: 21-1525/SRGP/R&D/HEC/2017), (Grant No: 21-1732/SRGP/R&D/HEC/2017), (Grant No: 21-1553/SRGP/R&D/HEC/2017) and Grant No: 21-1287/SRGP/R&D/HEC/2016 the Fundamental Research Funds for the Higher Education Commission (HEC) Pakistan.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rajwali Khan
    • 1
    • 4
    • 6
  • Zulfiqar
    • 1
  • Clodoaldo Irineu Levartoski de Araujo
    • 2
  • Tahirzeb Khan
    • 1
  • Shaukat Ali Khattak
    • 1
  • Ejaz Ahmed
    • 1
  • Aurangzeb Khan
    • 1
  • Burhan Ullah
    • 3
  • Gulzar Khan
    • 1
  • Kashif Safeen
    • 1
  • Akif Safeen
    • 1
    • 5
  • Syed Adnan Raza
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsAbdul Wali Khan University MardanMardanPakistan
  2. 2.Departamento de F ́ ısicaUniversidade Federal de Vi ̧ cosa-UFVVi ̧cosaBrazil
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsIslamia College PeshawarPeshawarPakistan
  4. 4.Department of PhysicsZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  5. 5.Department of PhysicsUniversity of PoonchRawlakotPakistan
  6. 6.Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fı´sicasRio de JaneiroBrazil

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