The effect of sintering process, particularly the sintering time, on ferroelectric properties of Bi0.5(Na0.8K0.2)0.5TiO3 (BNKT) has been studied and compared with Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 (BNT) and Bi0.5K0.5TiO3 (BKT) ceramics. Ceramic powders were prepared by the solid-state reaction method, employing a mechanochemical activation step, and sintered at different times. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman microspectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), impedance spectroscopy and ferroelectric hysteresis loops. Through XRD and Raman results, the perovskite structure was detected. In addition, a secondary phase was observed by SEM images. As the sintering time was increased, the medium grain size grew, and the amount of the secondary phase raised. Moreover, dielectric properties were modified by the resulting grain size and the amount of the secondary phase.
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The authors thank the following institutions for providing financial support: National Research Council (CONICET, Argentina) PIP 2012-0432, National Agency of Scientific and Technological Promotion (ANPCYT, Argentina) PICT 2014-1314, and National University of Mar del Plata (Argentina) Project (15G/388).
J. Rödel, W. Jo, K.T.P. Seifert, E.M. Anton, T. Granzow, D. Damjanovic, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92, 1153 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar