Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics

, Volume 28, Issue 17, pp 12630–12639 | Cite as

Effect of Sn crystallographic orientation on solder electromigration and Ni diffusion in Cu/Ni plating/Sn–0.7Cu joint at low current density

  • Takuya Kadoguchi
  • Tsubasa Sakai
  • Tsubasa Sei
  • Naoya Take
  • Kimihiro Yamanaka
  • Shijo Nagao
  • Katsuaki Suganuma
Article
  • 239 Downloads

Abstract

Electromigration (EM) in solder joints has recently been recognized as a serious reliability issue in the field of car electronics. EM in power modules is also of concern for next-generation environmentally-friendly vehicles. The current density of 10 kA/cm2 is well-known as the threshold for EM failure. Few researches have studied the EM behavior of solders at realistic current densities lower than 10 kA/cm2. In the present study, EM in a Cu/Ni plating/Sn–0.7Cu joint was investigated at low current densities of 2.5 and 5.0 kA/cm². It was found that even at a low current density of 2.5 kA/cm2, severe EM damage can be induced depending on Sn crystallographic orientation. When the c-axis of Sn crystals was parallel to the direction of electron flow, the solder detached at the cathode of the joint operated at 2.5 kA/cm2 for 2520 h. Conversely, when the c-axis of Sn crystals was perpendicular to the direction of electron flow, the solder did not detach in the joint until after a much longer time of 8200 h. Thus, it was clarified that the EM lifetime in a Cu/Ni plating/Sn–0.7Cu joint when the c-axis of Sn crystals was parallel to the direction of electron flow at a low current density of 2.5 kA/cm2 was about one-third that of the perpendicular orientation.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takuya Kadoguchi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tsubasa Sakai
    • 3
  • Tsubasa Sei
    • 3
  • Naoya Take
    • 4
  • Kimihiro Yamanaka
    • 3
  • Shijo Nagao
    • 2
  • Katsuaki Suganuma
    • 2
  1. 1.Electronic Components Production Engineering DivisionToyota Motor CorporationToyotaJapan
  2. 2.The Institute of Scientific and Industrial ResearchOsaka UniversityIbarakiJapan
  3. 3.School of EngineeringChukyo UniversityNagoyaJapan
  4. 4.Power Electronics Development DivisionToyota Motor CorporationToyotaJapan

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