Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics

, Volume 28, Issue 17, pp 12630–12639 | Cite as

Effect of Sn crystallographic orientation on solder electromigration and Ni diffusion in Cu/Ni plating/Sn–0.7Cu joint at low current density

  • Takuya Kadoguchi
  • Tsubasa Sakai
  • Tsubasa Sei
  • Naoya Take
  • Kimihiro Yamanaka
  • Shijo Nagao
  • Katsuaki Suganuma


Electromigration (EM) in solder joints has recently been recognized as a serious reliability issue in the field of car electronics. EM in power modules is also of concern for next-generation environmentally-friendly vehicles. The current density of 10 kA/cm2 is well-known as the threshold for EM failure. Few researches have studied the EM behavior of solders at realistic current densities lower than 10 kA/cm2. In the present study, EM in a Cu/Ni plating/Sn–0.7Cu joint was investigated at low current densities of 2.5 and 5.0 kA/cm². It was found that even at a low current density of 2.5 kA/cm2, severe EM damage can be induced depending on Sn crystallographic orientation. When the c-axis of Sn crystals was parallel to the direction of electron flow, the solder detached at the cathode of the joint operated at 2.5 kA/cm2 for 2520 h. Conversely, when the c-axis of Sn crystals was perpendicular to the direction of electron flow, the solder did not detach in the joint until after a much longer time of 8200 h. Thus, it was clarified that the EM lifetime in a Cu/Ni plating/Sn–0.7Cu joint when the c-axis of Sn crystals was parallel to the direction of electron flow at a low current density of 2.5 kA/cm2 was about one-third that of the perpendicular orientation.


Solder Joint Electron Flow Power Module Parallel Region Enlarge Scanning Electron Microscope Image 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to acknowledge that part of this research was performed with financial support from the Chukyo University Research Fund.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takuya Kadoguchi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tsubasa Sakai
    • 3
  • Tsubasa Sei
    • 3
  • Naoya Take
    • 4
  • Kimihiro Yamanaka
    • 3
  • Shijo Nagao
    • 2
  • Katsuaki Suganuma
    • 2
  1. 1.Electronic Components Production Engineering DivisionToyota Motor CorporationToyotaJapan
  2. 2.The Institute of Scientific and Industrial ResearchOsaka UniversityIbarakiJapan
  3. 3.School of EngineeringChukyo UniversityNagoyaJapan
  4. 4.Power Electronics Development DivisionToyota Motor CorporationToyotaJapan

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