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Sol–gel synthesis and characterization of a new four-layer K0.5Gd0.5Bi4Ti4O15 Aurivillius phase

  • Sunil Kumar
  • Arun Kumar Yadav
  • Somaditya Sen
Article

Abstract

Monophasic K0.5Gd0.5Bi4Ti4O15 powders were synthesized via a citrate-based sol–gel route. Rietveld analysis of powder X-ray diffraction data confirmed the composition to be a pure four-layer Aurivillius phase with an orthorhombic structure (space group A21 am and unit cell parameters a = 5.42798(52) Å, b = 5.41821(41) Å, and c = 41.2723(33) Å) at room temperature. The chemical composition and the morphology of the sintered pellets were examined by field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The dielectric properties were investigated as a function of temperature (27–600 °C) at various frequencies (10 Hz–1 MHz), and the phase transition was observed at 560 °C. Ferroelectric nature of K0.5Gd0.5Bi4Ti4O15 was demonstrated by the polarization–electric field (P–E) hysteresis loop. Equivalent circuit modeling of the complex impedance data was employed to determine the conduction behavior. The temperature dependence of dc conductivity was found to follow the Arrhenius law associated with the activation energy of 1.22 ± 0.02 eV and was attributed to the long-range movement of oxygen vacancies.

Keywords

Oxygen Vacancy Bismuth Titanate Aurivillius Phase Paraelectric Phase Transition Ferroelectric Nature 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

One of the authors (Sunil Kumar) is grateful to the DST for the award of research grant under INSPIRE Faculty scheme. Authors would also like to thank SIC, IIT Indore for access to FE-SEM.

Supplementary material

10854_2017_7052_MOESM1_ESM.docx (411 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 411 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Discipline of Metallurgy Engineering and Materials ScienceIndian Institute of Technology IndoreIndoreIndia
  2. 2.Discipline of PhysicsIndian Institute of TechnologyIndoreIndia

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