Effect of pulsed voltage on electrochemical migration of tin in electronics
The effect of pulsed voltage on electrochemical migration of tin was studied on size 0805 surface mount capacitors. The study was performed under water droplet condition using 0.0156 and 0.156 g L−1 concentrations of NaCl. The amplitude and the offset of rectangular shape pulse were fixed respectively at 10 and 5 V, while the duty cycle and the pulse width were varied in the range of ms. The results showed that varying of pulse width at fixed duty cycle has a minor effect under investigated conditions, whereas increasing duty cycle significantly reduces the time to short due to dendrite formation and increases the charge transferred between the electrodes over time. With increase of duty cycle, increases the anodic dissolution of tin, which was visualized using a tin ion indicator applied on the components prior to applying the voltage. The anodic dissolution of tin significantly influences the dendritic growth, although a tendency for more hydroxide precipitation was observed for lower duty cycles. The precipitation of tin hydroxides was identified as influencing factor for the reduction of charge transfer under pulsed voltage with low duty cycles, therefore resulting in the suppression of dendrite growth.
KeywordsDuty Cycle Pulse Voltage Anodic Dissolution Dendrite Growth Dendrite Formation
The research reported here was conducted as part of the CELCORR/CreCon consortium (www.celcorr.com) and the authors would like to acknowledge the funding and help received from the consortium partners. Shruti Borgaonkar (Technical University of Denmark), Daniel Minzari (IPU), and Lutz Müller (Robert Bosch GmbH) are acknowledged for their contributions to the preparation of the manuscript.
- 11.M.-S. Jung, S.-B. Lee, H.-Y. Lee, C.-S. Ryu, Y.-G. Ko, H.-W. Park, Y.-C. Joo, Improvement of electrochemical migration resistance by Cu/Sn intermetallic compound barrier on Cu in printed circuit board. IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 14(1), 382–389 (2014)Google Scholar
- 21.O. Short, Silver migration in electric circuits. Tele-Tech. Electron. Ind. (1956), pp. 64–65, 110–113Google Scholar
- 28.R.B. Abernethy (ed.), The New Weibull Handbook, 5th edn. (North Palm Beach, FL, 2006)Google Scholar
- 29.S. Lee, M. Jung, H. Lee, Y. Joo, Effect of initial anodic dissolution current on the electrochemical migration phenomenon of Sn solder. In Electronic Components and Technology Conference (2009), pp. 1737–1740Google Scholar