Effect of pulsed voltage on electrochemical migration of tin in electronics

  • Vadimas Verdingovas
  • Morten Stendahl Jellesen
  • Rajan Ambat


The effect of pulsed voltage on electrochemical migration of tin was studied on size 0805 surface mount capacitors. The study was performed under water droplet condition using 0.0156 and 0.156 g L−1 concentrations of NaCl. The amplitude and the offset of rectangular shape pulse were fixed respectively at 10 and 5 V, while the duty cycle and the pulse width were varied in the range of ms. The results showed that varying of pulse width at fixed duty cycle has a minor effect under investigated conditions, whereas increasing duty cycle significantly reduces the time to short due to dendrite formation and increases the charge transferred between the electrodes over time. With increase of duty cycle, increases the anodic dissolution of tin, which was visualized using a tin ion indicator applied on the components prior to applying the voltage. The anodic dissolution of tin significantly influences the dendritic growth, although a tendency for more hydroxide precipitation was observed for lower duty cycles. The precipitation of tin hydroxides was identified as influencing factor for the reduction of charge transfer under pulsed voltage with low duty cycles, therefore resulting in the suppression of dendrite growth.


Duty Cycle Pulse Voltage Anodic Dissolution Dendrite Growth Dendrite Formation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The research reported here was conducted as part of the CELCORR/CreCon consortium ( and the authors would like to acknowledge the funding and help received from the consortium partners. Shruti Borgaonkar (Technical University of Denmark), Daniel Minzari (IPU), and Lutz Müller (Robert Bosch GmbH) are acknowledged for their contributions to the preparation of the manuscript.


  1. 1.
    J.J. Steppan, J.A. Roth, L.C. Hall, A review of corrosion failure mechanisms during accelerated tests electrolytic metal migration. J. Electrochem. Soc. 134(1), 175–190 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. Harsányi, G. Inzelt, Comparing migratory resistive short formation abilities of conductor systems applied in advanced interconnection systems. Microelectron. Reliab. 41(2), 229–237 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    D.Q. Yu, W. Jillek, E. Schmitt, Electrochemical migration of Sn–Pb and lead free solder alloys under distilled water. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 17(3), 219–227 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    B. Medgyes, B. Illés, G. Harsányi, Electrochemical migration behaviour of Cu, Sn, Ag and Sn63/Pb37. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 23(2), 551–556 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    D. Minzari, M.S. Jellesen, P. Møller, R. Ambat, On the electrochemical migration mechanism of tin in electronics. Corros. Sci. 53(10), 3366–3379 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    D. Minzari, M.S. Jellesen, P. Møller, P. Wahlberg, R. Ambat, Electrochemical migration on electronic chip resistors in chloride environments. IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9(3), 392–402 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    V. Verdingovas, M.S. Jellesen, R. Ambat, Influence of sodium chloride and weak organic acids (flux residues) on electrochemical migration of tin on surface mount chip components. Corros. Eng. Sci. Technol. 48(6), 426–435 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    S.-B. Lee, M.-S. Jung, H.-Y. Lee, T. Kang, Y.-C. Joo, Effect of bias voltage on the electrochemical migration behaviors of Sn and Pb. IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9(3), 483–488 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    B. Noh, J. Yoon, W. Hong, S. Jung, Evaluation of electrochemical migration on flexible printed circuit boards with different surface finishes. J. Electron. Mater. 38(6), 902–907 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    B. Noh, J. Lee, S. Jung, Effect of surface finish material on printed circuit board for electrochemical migration. Microelectron. Reliab. 48, 652–656 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M.-S. Jung, S.-B. Lee, H.-Y. Lee, C.-S. Ryu, Y.-G. Ko, H.-W. Park, Y.-C. Joo, Improvement of electrochemical migration resistance by Cu/Sn intermetallic compound barrier on Cu in printed circuit board. IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 14(1), 382–389 (2014)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    X. Zhong, G. Zhang, Y. Qiu, Z. Chen, W. Zou, X. Guo, In situ study the dependence of electrochemical migration of tin on chloride. Electrochem. Commun. 27, 63–68 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    X. Zhong, G. Zhang, Y. Qiu, Z. Chen, X. Guo, Electrochemical migration of tin in thin electrolyte layer containing chloride ions. Corros. Sci. 74, 71–82 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. Xie, X. Tang, J. Chen, B. Song, J. Jin, H. Zhang, Reliability analysis and accelerated statistical model of CNC PCB for electrochemical migration. IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 14(1), 90–98 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    X. He, M. Azarian, M. Pecht, Evaluation of electrochemical migration on printed circuit boards with lead-free and tin–lead solder. J. Electron. Mater. 40(9), 1921–1936 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Zhan, M.H. Azarian, M. Pecht, Reliability of printed circuit boards processed using no-clean flux technology in temperature—humidity—bias conditions. IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 8(2), 426–434 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    V. Verdingovas, M.S. Jellesen, R. Ambat, Impact of NaCl contamination and climatic conditions on the reliability of printed circuit board assemblies. IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 14(1), 42–51 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    L.C. Zou, C. Hunt, Characterization of the conduction mechanisms in adsorbed electrolyte layers on electronic boards using AC impedance. J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(1), C8–C15 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    S.W. Chaikin, J.J. Janney, F.M. Church, C.W. McClelland, Silver migration and printed wiring. Ind. Eng. Chem. 51(3), 299–304 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. Kim, M. Park, D. Nam, H. Kwon, Electrochemical migration behavior of a fine-pitch IC substrate by alternating current. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(11), 8258–8263 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    O. Short, Silver migration in electric circuits. Tele-Tech. Electron. Ind. (1956), pp. 64–65, 110–113Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    K.J. Harry, D.T. Hallinan, D.Y. Parkinson, A.A. MacDowell, N.P. Balsara, Detection of subsurface structures underneath dendrites formed on cycled lithium metal electrodes. Nat. Mater. 13(1), 69–73 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    M.Z. Mayers, J.W. Kaminski, T.F. Miller, Suppression of dendrite formation via pulse charging in rechargeable lithium metal batteries. J. Phys. Chem. C 116(50), 26214–26221 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. Aryanfar, D. Brooks, B.V. Merinov, W.A. Goddard, A.J. Colussi, M.R. Hoffmann, Dynamics of lithium dendrite growth and inhibition: pulse charging experiments and Monte Carlo calculations. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(10), 1721–1726 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    H. Yang, E.O. Fey, B.D. Trimm, N. Dimitrov, M.S. Whittingham, Effects of pulse plating on lithium electrodeposition, morphology and cycling efficiency. J. Power Sources 272, 900–908 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    B. Tsenter, M. Golod, Safe and efficient charging algorithm for lithium batteries. J. Power Sources 65(1–2), 284–285 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    X. Zhong, X. Guo, Y. Qiu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, In situ study the electrochemical migration of tin under unipolar square wave electric field. J. Electrochem. Soc. 160(11), 495–500 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    R.B. Abernethy (ed.), The New Weibull Handbook, 5th edn. (North Palm Beach, FL, 2006)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    S. Lee, M. Jung, H. Lee, Y. Joo, Effect of initial anodic dissolution current on the electrochemical migration phenomenon of Sn solder. In Electronic Components and Technology Conference (2009), pp. 1737–1740Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vadimas Verdingovas
    • 1
  • Morten Stendahl Jellesen
    • 1
  • Rajan Ambat
    • 1
  1. 1.Materials and Surface Engineering, Department of Mechanical EngineeringTechnical University of DenmarkLyngbyDenmark

Personalised recommendations