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Electrodeposition of CdTe thin films using nitrate precursor for applications in solar cells

  • H. I. Salim
  • V. Patel
  • A. Abbas
  • J. M. Walls
  • I. M. Dharmadasa
Article

Abstract

Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films have been electrodeposited (ED) on glass/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates using simplified two-electrode system in acidic and aqueous solution containing Cd(NO3)2 4H2O and TeO2. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical absorption, photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been carried out to study the structural, optical, electrical and morphological properties of the CdTe layers. The XRD study shows that the ED-CdTe layers are polycrystalline with cubic crystal structure. Results obtained from optical absorption reveal that the bandgaps of the as-deposited and the CdCl2 treated CdTe layers are in the ranges ~1.50 to ~1.54 eV and ~1.46 to ~1.51 eV, respectively. Observation from PEC measurements indicates a p-, i- and n-type electrical conductivity for as-deposited CdTe layers grown in the cathodic voltage range (1,247–1,258) mV. The SEM images indicate noticeable change in CdTe grain size from ~85 to ~430 nm after CdCl2 treatment with uniform surface coverage of the glass/FTO substrate. The TEM images show the columnar growth structure for as-deposited and CdCl2 treated CdTe layers. The TEM images also indicate an increase in grain’s diameter from ~50 to ~200 nm after CdCl2 treatment.

Keywords

TeO2 Cathodic Potential CdTe Layer Electrodeposition Technique CdTe Thin Film 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Paul Bingham, O. K. Echendu, Fijay Fauzi, Azlian Abdul-Manaf, Mohammad Madugu and Olajide I. Olusola for their contributions to this work. The principal author wishes to thank the Ministry of Higher Education & Scientific Research at Kurdistan Region of Iraq for financial support.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. I. Salim
    • 1
  • V. Patel
    • 2
  • A. Abbas
    • 3
  • J. M. Walls
    • 3
  • I. M. Dharmadasa
    • 1
  1. 1.Electronic Materials and Sensors Group, Materials and Engineering Research InstituteSheffield Hallam UniversitySheffieldUK
  2. 2.Department of Engineering, Mechanics of Materials, General OfficeLeicester UniversityLeicesterUK
  3. 3.CREST (Centre for Renewable Energy Systems and Technology)Loughborough UniversityLoughborough, LeicestershireUK

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