Advertisement

Ferromagnetism in Fe-doped CdSe nanorods prepared by solvothermal route

  • Jaspal SinghEmail author
  • N. K. Verma
Article

Abstract

The present work deals with the role played by structural defects and doping concentration on the observed ferromagnetic behavior in pure and Fe-doped CdSe nanorods. X-ray diffraction and Raman analyses reveal the formation of wurtzite phase hexagonal structure of the pure and Fe-doped CdSe nanorods, without any additional parasitic secondary phases. Selected area electron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy results show the single crystalline nature of the synthesized nanorods, possessing diameter and length around 8–15 and 100–140 nm, respectively. Energy dispersive spectroscopy and UV–visible spectra indicate the incorporation of Fe in host nanorods. Electron spin resonance analysis shows that the Fe ions are present in +3 oxidation state in host CdSe nanorods. The magnetization versus applied field (M–H) curves has been measured with vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature. The increase of saturation magnetization with Fe-doping concentration has been observed which can be explained by the bound magnetic polaron (F-center exchange mechanism) at defect sites in the host CdSe nanorods.

Keywords

Electron Spin Resonance Electron Spin Resonance Spectrum Magnetic Polaron Phonon Confinement Electron Spin Resonance Analysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge, Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO), India for providing financial support (vide sanction Letter No. ERIP/ER/0903766/M/01/1191) to carry out this research work and, AIRF, JNU, Delhi for providing the TEM facility.

References

  1. 1.
    S. Datta, B. Das, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 665 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. Ohno, Science 281, 951 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    C. Liu, F. Yun, H. Morkoc, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 16, 555 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, D. Ferrand, Science 287, 1019 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J.K. Furdyna, J. Appl. Phys. 64, R29 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J.M.D. Coey, M. Venkatesan, C.B. Fitzgerald, Nat. Mater. 4, 173 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    G.J. Huang, J.B. Wang, X.L. Zhong, G.C. Zhou, H.L. Yan, J. Mater. Sci. 42, 6464 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    H. Liu, J. Yang, Y. Zhang, L. Yang, M. Wei, X. Ding, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 145803 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. Saleh, S.P. Prakoso, A. Fishli, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 324, 665 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J.H. Park, M.G. Kim, H.M. Jang, S. Ryu, Y.M. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1338 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    D. Karmakar, S.K. Mandal, R.M. Kadam, P.L. Paulose, A.K. Rajarajan, T.K. Nath, G.P. Das, Phys. Rev. B 75, 144404 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H.K. Seong, J.Y. Kim, J.J. Kim, S.C. Lee, S.R. Kim, U. Kim, H.J. Choi, Nano Lett. 7, 3366 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J.J. Wu, S.C. Liu, M.H. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1027 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. Cheng, G. Xu, H. Zhang, Y. Luo, Mater. Lett. 62, 1617 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    H.L. Yan, X.L. Zhong, J.B. Wang, G.J. Huang, S.L. Ding, G.C. Zhou, Y.C. Zhou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 082503 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    X. Liu, J. Iqbal, Z. Wu, B. He, R. Yu, J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 4790 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M.V. Limaye, S.B. Singh, R. Das, P. Poddar, S.K. Kulkarni, J. Solid. Stat. Chem. 184, 391 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. Manna, S.K. De, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 322, 749 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Y. Ding, W.Q. Han, L.H. Lewis, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 123902 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    B.D. Cullity, Elements of X-ray Diffraction, 2nd edn. (Addison-Wesley, Reading MA, 1978)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    G.K. Williamson, W.H. Hall, Acta Metall. 1, 22 (1953)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Chen, L. Gao, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 1643 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Y. Liu, H.Y. Qiu, Y. Xu, D. Wu, M.J. Li, J.X. Jiang, G.Q. Lai, J. Nanopart. Res. 9, 745 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A.K. Mishra, D. Das, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 171, 5 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    L. Xi, Y.M. Lam, Y.P. Xu, L.J. Li, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 320, 491 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    H. Lange, M. Artemyev, U. Woggon, C. Thomsen, Phys. Status Solidi B 246, 2817 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    G. Scamarcio, M. Lugara, D. Manno, Phys. Rev. B 45, 13792 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J.Y. Zhang, X.Y. Wang, M. Xiao, L. Qu, X. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2076 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    A.J. Mayur, M.D. Sciacca, H. Kim, I. Miotkowski, A.K. Ramdas, S. Rodriguez, G.C. La Rocca, Phys. Rev. B 53, 12884 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    A.J. Sievers, S. Takeno, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 970 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    S.B. Singh, M.V. Limaye, S.K. Date, S. Gokhale, S.K. Kulkarni, Phys. Rev. B 80, 235421 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    H. Sekhar, D.N. Rao, J. Alloys Compd. 517, 103 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    A. Singhal, S.N. Achary, J. Manjanna, O.D. Jayakumar, R.M. Kadam, A.K. Tyagi, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 3600 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    S. Sambasivam, B.K. Reddy, A. Divya, N. Madhusudhana Rao, C.K. Jayasankar, B. Sreedhar, Phys. Lett. A 373, 1465 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M.S. Seehra, P. Dutta, S. Neeleshwar, Y.Y. Chen, C.L. Chen, S.W. Chou, C.L. Chang, Adv. Mater. 20, 1656 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    D.J. Chadi, R.M. White, W.A. Harrison, Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 1372 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    W.L. Roth, Phys. Rev. 110, 1333 (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    R. Adhikari, A.K. Das, D. Karmakar, T.C. Rao, J. Ghatak, Phys. Rev. B 78, 024404 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    K. Woo, J. Hong, S. Choi, H.W. Lee, J.P. Ahn, C. Kim, S.W. Lee, Chem. Mater. 16, 2814 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nano Research Lab, School of Physics and Materials ScienceThapar UniversityPatialaIndia

Personalised recommendations