Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics

, Volume 23, Issue 9, pp 1664–1672 | Cite as

Effect of temperature and substrate surface texture on wettability and morphology of IMCs between Sn–0.7Cu solder alloy and copper substrate

  • Satyanarayan
  • K. N. PrabhuEmail author


In the present work, the effect of soldering temperature (270 and 298 °C) and substrate surface texture (0.02 and 1.12 μm) on wetting characteristics and morphology of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) between Sn–0.7Cu lead-free solder on copper substrates was investigated. It was found that increase in temperature and substrate surface roughness improved the wettability of solder alloy. However, the effect of surface roughness on wettability was significant as compared to that of temperature. The spreading of solder alloy was uniform on smooth substrate, whereas spreading of the alloy on rough substrate resulted in an oval shape. The morphology of IMCs transformed from long needle shaped to short and thick protrusions of IMCs with increase in surface roughness of the substrate. Needle shaped and thick protruded intermetallics formed at the solder/Cu interface were identified as Cu6Sn5 compounds. The formation of Cu3Sn IMC was observed only for the spreading of solder alloy at 298 °C which contributed to improvement in the wettability of solder alloy on both smooth and rough substrate surfaces.


Contact Angle Wettability Solder Alloy Lead Free Solder Copper Substrate 
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One of the authors (KNP) thanks the Defence Research Development Organisation, Government of India, New Delhi, for providing financial assistance for procurement of dynamic contact angle Analyser. The writers also thank Miss. Rashmi Banjan, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, NITK, for the help received for SEM characterization.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringNational Institute of Technology KarnatakaSurathkal, MangaloreIndia

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