Effect of Ti on the interfacial reaction between Sn and Cu



The effect of Ti on the solid state reactions between Sn and Cu has been investigated in this work. Based on the experimental results the following statements about the effect of Ti can be made: Firstly, the presence of Ti does not have measurable effect on the thickness of either Cu6Sn5 or Cu3Sn during solid state annealing. However, the unevenness of both Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn layers is increased by the addition of Ti. Secondly, there is no marked solubility of Ti to either Cu6Sn5 or Cu3Sn. Rather Ti reacts with Sn to form large Ti2Sn3 platelets inside the solder matrix. These findings were subsequently rationalized with the help of the assessed Cu–Sn–Ti phase diagram. By utilizing this phase diagram information, the absence of any marked effects of Ti on the growth of Cu–Sn intermetallic compound (IMC) formation was rationalized. As there is a very low solubility of Ti to SnAg solder and to Cu–Sn IMC’s, Ti cannot change activities of components in the solder nor influence the stability of the IMC layers. Hence, these results throw significant doubts over the concept of trying to influence the Cu–Sn IMC layer thickness or quality by Ti alloying.


Interfacial Reaction Isothermal Section Solder Matrix Bulk Solder Solder Interconnection 
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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Electronics Integration and Reliability, Department of Electronics, School of Electrical EngineeringAalto UniversityAaltoFinland

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