Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics

, Volume 22, Issue 9, pp 1387–1392 | Cite as

Fabrication of flat capped carbon nanotubes using an arc-discharge method assisted with a Sm-Co catalyst

  • Jeff T. H. Tsai
  • Jeng-Shiung Chen
  • Chia-Liang Sun


In this study, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were fabricated using an arc-discharge method assisted with samarium-cobalt (Sm-Co) chloride as a catalyst. The optimal fabrication condition was determined through a series of experiments on various ambient conditions. Observations were completed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and tunneling electron microscopy (TEM); the main products we observed are well-structured multi-walled carbon nanotubes. By identifying the radial breathing modes (RBMs) of the Raman spectra with a TEM micrograph, we also observed a small number of single-walled carbon nanotubes. With the assistance of the Sm-Co chloride catalyst, the RBMs of the Raman spectra were measured in the ambient pressure of 760 torr. The TEM observations revealed that our nanotubes have good graphitic structures and almost no bamboo defects, which agrees with their Raman measurements with a high IG/ID ratio (~88). A perfect graphitic flat cap was found to be attached at the end of the nanotube. Simulation shows that by incorporating 5 carbon pentagons, it is possible to construct a flat capped carbon nanotube. The results of our experiment offer a unique approach to growing high quality CNTs. Such a flat capped structure may useful for further advanced application in nano-electronics and nano-optics.


Fullerene Radial Breathing Mode Buckyball Tangential Mode Tunneling Electron Microscopy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    H.W. Kroto, J.R. Heath, S.C. O’Brien, R.F. Curl, R.E. Smalley, Nature 318, 162 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    W. Krätschmer, K. Fostiropoulos, D.R. Huffman, Chem. Phys. Lett. 170, 167 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. Iijima, Nature 354, 56 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    L.C. Qin, X. Zhao, K. Hirahara, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Ando, S. Iijima, Nature 408, 50 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. Iijima, T. Ichihashi, Nature 363, 603 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    T. Guo, P. Nikolaev, A. Thess, D.T. Colbert, R.E. Smalley, Chem. Phys. Lett. 243, 49 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    L.C. Qin, S. Iijima, Chem. Phys. Lett. 269, 65 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Y. Saito, Y. Tani, N. Miyagawa, K. Mitsushima, A. Kasuya, Y. Nishina, Chem. Phys. Lett. 294, 593 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    K.S. Kim, A. Moradian, J. Mostaghimi, Y. Alinejad, A. Shahverdi et al., Nano Res. 2, 800 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    H.-H. Chen, W.-Y. Uen, C.-T. Ku, S.-M. Lan, T.-N. Yang, Z.-Y. Li, C.-C. Chiang, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. El. 20, 407 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.T.H. Tsai, K.H. Chen, Int. J. Nanosci. 4, 431 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M.S. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus, R. Saito, A. Jorio, Phys. Rep. 409, 47 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A.M. Rao, E. Richter, S. Bandow, B. Chase, P.C. Eklund, K.A. Williams, S. Fang, K.R. Subbaswamy, M. Menon, A. Thess, R.E. Smalley, G. Dresselhaus, M.S. Dresselhaus, Science 275, 187 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    N. Sano, H. Wang, I. Alexandrou, M. Chhowalla, K.B.K. Teo, G.A.J. Amaratunga, K. Iimura, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2783 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Chhowalla, H. Wang, N. Sano, K.B.K. Teo, S.B. Lee, G.A.J. Amaratunga, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 155504 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    X. Wang, B. Xu, X. Liu, J. Guo, H. Ichinose, Diam. Relat. Mater. 15, 147 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    L.E. McNeil, H. Park, J.P. Lu, M.J. Peters, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 5158 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Y. Ando, X. Zhao, H. Shimoyama, Carbon 39, 569 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Jinno, Y. Ando, S. Bandow, J. Fan, M. Yudasaka, S. Iijima, Chem. Phys. Lett. 418, 109 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeff T. H. Tsai
    • 1
  • Jeng-Shiung Chen
    • 1
  • Chia-Liang Sun
    • 2
  1. 1.Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical EngineeringTatung UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Chemical and Materials EngineeringChang Gung UniversityKwei-Shan Tao-YuanTaiwan

Personalised recommendations