Lucky-drift model for impact ionization in amorphous semiconductors

  • K. Jandieri
  • O. Rubel
  • S. D. Baranovskii
  • A. Reznik
  • J. A. Rowlands
  • S. O. Kasap


A lucky-drift model for impact ionization has been recently successfully used to account for avalanche phenomenon in amorphous selenium (a-Se). We extend the calculations in order to compare the effect in a-Se with possible impact ionization phenomenon in another prototype amorphous semiconductor: hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The results suggest that the higher phonon energy in a-Si:H as compared to a-Se shifts the threshold field for impact ionization in a-Si:H to essentially higher fields than those needed for avalanche multiplication in a-Se. Furthermore, it has been recently suggested that impact ionization is a precursor of the switching effect in the phase-change-memory materials (Ge2Sb2Te5). We apply the lucky-drift model to Ge2Sb2Te5 and show that it is capable to account for the magnitude of the electric field necessary to launch the electronic switching in this material.


  1. 1.
    N. Hindley, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 5, 31 (1970)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. Juska, K. Arlauskas, Phys. Status Solidi A 59, 389 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    K. Tanioka et al., IEEE Electron. Devices Lett. 8, 388 (1987)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    K. Tsuji, Y. Takasaki, T. Hirai, K. Taketoshi, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 114, 94 (1989)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    K. Tsuji et al., Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 219, 507 (1991)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    F. Okano, J. Kumada, K. Tanioka, SMPTE J. 99, 612 (1990)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    D. Hunt, S. Kirby, J. Rowlands, Med. Phys. 29, 2464 (2002)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. Kasap, J.A. Rowlands, S.D. Baranovskii, K. Tanioka, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2037 (2004)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    K. Tanioka, J. Yamazaki, K. Shidara, K. Taketoshi, T. Hirai, Y. Takasaki, Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 74, 379 (1988)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Kasap, J. Rowlands, K. Tanioka, A. Nathan, in Charge Transport in Disordered Solids, ed. by S. Baranovski (Wiley, Chichester, 2006)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    W. Shockley, Solid-State Electron. 2, 35 (1961)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    V. Arkhipov, S. Kasap, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 266–269, 959 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    B.K. Ridley, J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 16, 3373 (1983)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    O. Rubel, S.D. Baranovskii, I.P. Zvyagin, P. Thomas, S.O. Kasap, Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 1186 (2004)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    W. Futako, T. Sugawara, T. Kamiya, I. Shimizu, J. Organomet. Chem. 611, 525 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    G. Juska, K. Arlauskas, J. Kocka, M. Hoheisal, P. Chabloz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2984 (1995)PubMedCrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Akiyama, M. Hanada, H. Takao, K. Sawada, M. Ishida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2552 (2002)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. Pirovano, A.L. Lacaita, A. Benvenuti, F. Pellizzer, R. Bez, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 51, 452 (2004)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    G. Juska, K. Arlauskas, Phys. Status Solidi A, 59, 389 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    G. Juska, K. Arlauskas, E. Montrimas, J. Non-Cryst. Solids (97), 559 (1987)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    B. Vanhuyse, W. Grevendonk, G.J. Adriaennsens, J. Dauwen, Phys. Rev. B 35, 9298 (1987)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Abkowitz, Philos. Mag. Lett. 58, 53 (1988)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    W.C. Tan, G. Belev, K. Koughia, R. Johanson, S. O’Leary, S. Kasap, J. Mater. Sci : Mater. Electron. 18 (Suppl. 1), 429 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    E. Mytilineou, A. Kolobov, in Photo-Induced Metastability in Amorphous Semiconductors, ed. by A.V. Kolobov (Wiley, Weinheim, 2003), p. 54Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    A. Reznik, S.D. Baranovskii, O. Rubel, G. Juska, S. Kasap, Y. Ohkava, K. Tanioka, J.A. Rowlands, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 053711 (2007)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    J. Singh, K. Shimakawa, Advances in Amorphous Semiconductors (Tailor and Francis, London, 2003)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    W.A. Kamitakahara, H.R. Shanks, J.F. McClelland, U. Buchenau, F. Gompf, L. Pintschovius, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 644 (1984)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    A.A. Langford, M.L. Fleet, B.P. Nelson, W.A. Lanford, N. Maley, Phys. Rev. B 45, 13367 (1992)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    M. Chen, K. Rubin, R. Barton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 502 (1986)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    R.G. Neale, J.A. Aseltine, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 20, 195 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    H.R. Yoon, W. Jo, E. Cho, S. Yoon, M. Kim, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3757 (2006)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Jandieri
    • 1
  • O. Rubel
    • 1
  • S. D. Baranovskii
    • 1
  • A. Reznik
    • 2
  • J. A. Rowlands
    • 2
  • S. O. Kasap
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Physics and Material Sciences CenterPhilipps—University MarburgMarburgGermany
  2. 2.Imaging ResearchSunnybrook Health Sciences CentreTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Electrical Engineering DepartmentUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada

Personalised recommendations