Transparent electrodes made of ultra thin metals have recently been demonstrated with performances comparable to those offered by transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), which are traditionally used in applications such as photovoltaic cells, light emitting devices, photodetectors and electro-optical modulators. In this work we report highly uniform, optically transparent and electrically conductive nickel films. Their good performance, combined with low cost and simplicity in processing, make ultra thin Ni films highly competitive, even with respect to the latest developments in TCO technology. Nickel films can be easily incorporated into an industrial process flow and could therefore be an attractive alternative to TCOs in many industrial applications.
Transparent Conductive Oxide Transparent Electrode Nickel Film Ultra Thin Film Effective Roughness
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The authors thank Davide Janner (ICFO) for his technical support and help and Cinta Pujol (Universitat Ramon Llull) for her special collaboration in the transmittance analysis. This work was partly supported by the Spanish National Program Plan Nacional no. TEC 2007-60185.