Advertisement

Nanostructure engineering in porous columnar thin films: recent advances

  • John J. Steele
  • Michael J. Brett
Review

Abstract

Glancing angle deposition (GLAD) is a physical vapour deposition method used to fabricate highly functional thin films with an engineerable columnar morphology. Recent developments in GLAD technology have produced columnar nanostructures of increased complexity, including periodic, nanofibrous, perforated, and graded porosity thin films for use in applications ranging from sensors and actuators to optical filters, microfluidics, and catalysis. A brief review of GLAD methodology and historical developments is followed by a discussion of the latest developments in this field.

Keywords

Chevron Stop Band Vapour Flux Film Morphology Vapour Source 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), the Alberta Informatics Circle of Research Excellence (iCORE) and Micralyne Inc. for financial support. We would also like to thank George Braybrook, Daniel Salamon and Mark Summers for excellent SEM imaging.

References

  1. 1.
    A.C. Van Popta, J.C. Sit, M.J. Brett, Appl. Optics 43:3632 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S.R. Kennedy, M.J. Brett, O. Toader, S. John, Nano Lett. 2, 59 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    D. Vick, M.J. Brett, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A24, 156 (2006)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    K. Robbie, M.J. Brett, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A15, 1460 (1997)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    K. Robbie, M.J. Brett, U.S. Patent 5 866 204, February 2 (1999)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    B. Dick, M.J. Brett, in Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 6 (American Scientific Publishers, Stevenson Ranch, 2004), p. 703Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    D. Vick, J.C. Sit, M.J. Brett, in Recent Developments in Vacuum Science and Technology 2003 (Research Signpost, Kerala India, 2003). p. 67Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M.J. Colgan, M.J. Brett, Thin Solid Films 389, 1 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.N. Broughton, M.J. Brett, Electrochem. Solid-St. Lett. 5, A279 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    G.K. Kiema, M.J. Colgan, M.J. Brett, Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 85, 321 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    K.D. Harris, D. Vick, E.J. Gonzalez, T. Smy, K. Robbie, M.J. Brett, Surf. Coat. Tech. 138, 185 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J.J. Steele, J.P. Gospodyn, J.C. Sit, M.J. Brett, IEEE Sensor. J. 6, 24 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    G.K. Kiema, M.J. Brett, J. Electrochem. Soc. 150, E342 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    P.C.P. Hrudey, K.L. Westra, M.J. Brett, Adv. Mater. 18, 224 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. Kundt, Ann. Phys. Chem. Lpz. 27, 59 (1886)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    H. König, G. Helwig, Optik. 6, 111 (1950)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    L. Holland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 376 (1953)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    L. Holland, in Vapor Deposition of Thin Films (Wiley, New York, 1956)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    D.O. Smith, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 264S (1959)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    T.G. Knorr, R.W. Hoffmann, Phys. Rev. 113, 1039 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J.M. Nieuwenhuizen, H.B. Haanstra, Philips Tech. Rev. 27, 87 (1966)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    N. Kaiser, Appl. Optics 41, 3053 (2002)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    M. Ohring, in The Materials Science of Thin Films (Academic Press, Toronto, 2002)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    R. Messier, T. Gehrke, C. Frankel, V.C. Venugopal, W. Otaño, A. Lakhtakia, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A15, 2148 (1997)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    F. Liu, C. Yu, L. Shen, J. Barnard, G.L. Mankey, IEEE T. Magn. 36, 2939 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    K. Robbie, L.J. Friedrich, S.K. Dew, T. Smy, M.J. Brett, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A13, 1032 (1995)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. Sit, D. Vick, K. Robbie, M.J. Brett, J. Mater. Res. 14, 1197 (1999)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    D.O. Smith, M.S. Cohen, G.P. Weiss, J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1755 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    T. Motohiro, Y. Taga, Appl. Optics 28, 2466 (1989)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    K. Robbie, M.J. Brett, A. Lakhtakia, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A13, 2991 (1995)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    I.J. Hodgkinson, Q.H. Wu, M.J. Brett, K. Robbie, Opt. Interference Coat. 9, 104 (1998)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    I.J. Hodgkinson, Q.H. Wu, Appl. Optics 38, 3621 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    D.X. Ye, Y.P. Zhao, G.R. Yang, Y.G. Zhao, G.C. Wang, T.M. Lu, Nanotech. 13, 615 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    S.B. Chaney, S. Shanmukh, R.A. Dluhy, Y.P. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031908 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M. Suzuki, W. Maekita, K. Kishimoto, S. Teramura, K. Nakajima, K. Kimura, Y. Taga, Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L193 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    A.C. Van Popta, M.J. Brett, J.C. Sit, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 083517 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    R. Messier, V.C. Venugopal, P.D. Sunal, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A18, 1538 (2000)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    M.O. Jensen, M.J. Brett, Opt. Express 13, 3348 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    B. Dick, M.J. Brett, T.J. Smy, M.R. Freeman, M. Malac, R.F. Egerton, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A18, 1838 (2000)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    M. Maac, R.F. Egerton, Nanotech. 12, 11 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    F. Liu, M.T. Umlor, L. Shen, J. Weston, W. Eads, J.A. Barnard, G.J. Mankey, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 5486 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    M. Malac, R.F. Egerton, M.J. Brett, B. Dick, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B17, 2671 (1999)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    B. He, N. Tait, F. Regnier, Anal. Chem. 70, 3790 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    L.R. Huang, E.C. Cox, R.H. Austin, J.C. Sturm, Science 304, 987 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    B. Dick, M.J. Brett, T. Smy, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B21, 23 (2003)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    M.O. Jensen, M.J. Brett, IEEE T. Nanotechnol. 4, 269 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    M. Aktary, M.O. Jensen, K.L. Westra, M.J. Brett, M.R. Freeman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B21, L5 (2003)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    M.A. Summers, S. Kennedy, A. Elias, M. Jensen, K. Harris, B. Szeto, M.J. Brett, in Proceedings of SPIE, San Jose, January 2004, ed. by E.G. Johnson (SPIE, Bellingham, 2004). p. 170Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    B. Dick, J.C. Sit, M.J. Brett, I.M.N. Votte, C.W.M. Bastiaansen, Nano Lett. 1, 71 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    S.V. Kesapragada, D. Gall, Thin Solid Films 494, 234 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    D. Vick, L.J. Friedrich, S.K. Dew, M.J. Brett, K. Robbie, M. Seto, T. Smy, Thin Solid Films 339, 88 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    D. Vick, T. Smy, M.J. Brett, J. Mater. Res. 17, 2904 (2002)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    M. Summers, B. Djurfors, M. Brett, J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsyst. 4, 033012 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    M.O. Jensen, M.J. Brett, Appl. Phys. A80, 763 (2005)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    D.A. Gish, M.A. Summers, M.J. Brett, Phot. Nano. 4, 23 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    M.O. Jensen, M.J. Brett, Nanotech. 16, 2639 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    G.K. Kiema, M.O. Jensen, M.J. Brett, Chem. Mater. 17, 4046 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    K. Robbie, J.C. Sit, M.J. Brett, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16, 1115 (1998)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    R.N. Tait, T. Smy, M.J. Brett, Thin Solid Films 226, 196 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    J.J. Steele, A.C. van Popta, M.M. Hawkeye, J.C. Sit, M.J. Brett, Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. in press (2006)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    K.D. Harris, J.R. Mcbride, K.E. Nietering, M.J. Brett, Sensor. Mater. 13, 225 (2001)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    D.X. Ye, T. Karabacak, R.C. Picu, G.C. Wang, T.M. Lu, Nanotech. 16, 1717 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    K.D. Harris, K.L. Westra, M.J. Brett, Electrochem. Solid-St. Lett. 4, C39 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    A.L. Elias, K.D. Harris, M.J. Brett, J. Microelectromech. S. 13, 808 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    K.D. Harris, J.C. Sit, M.J. Brett, IEEE T. Nanotechnol. 1, 122 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    A.L. Elias, K.D. Harris, C.W.M. Bastiaansen, D.J. Broer, M.J. Brett, J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 49 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    H.A. Macleod, in Thin-Film Optical Filters (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    K. Robbie, M.J. Brett, A. Lakhtakia, Nature 384, 616 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    K. Kaminska, T. Brown, G. Beydaghyan, K. Robbie, Appl. Optics 42, 4212 (2003)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    S.R. Kennedy, M.J. Brett, Appl. Optics 42, 4573 (2003)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    K. Kaminska, K. Robbie, Appl. Optics 43, 1570 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    W.H. Southwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1558 (1998)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    B.G. Bovard, Appl. Optics 32, 5427 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    A.C. Van Popta, M.M. Hawkeye, J.C. Sit, M.J. Brett, Opt. Lett. 29, 2545 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    K. Kaminska, M. Suzuki, K. Kimura, Y. Taga, K. Robbie, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3055 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    A.C. Van Popta, J.J. Steele, S. Tsoi, J.G.C. Veinot, M.J. Brett, J.C. Sit, Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 1331 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations